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Dāna: 'foodgiving', generosity, offering.;He who gives food, bestows a fourfold blessing: he helps to long life, good appearance, happiness and strength. Therefore long life, good appearance, happiness and strength will be his share, whether amongst divine beings or amongst men; A. IV, 57.

;Five blessings accrue to the giver of food: the affection of many, noble association, good reputation, self-confidence, and divine rebirth; see A. V, 34. Seven further blessings are given in A. VII, 54.

generosity, especially the offering of robes, food, etc., to the Bhikkhus, is highly praised in all Buddhist countries of Southern Asia as a fundamental virtue and as a means to suppress man's inborn greed and egoism. But, as in any other good or bad action, so also in offering gifts, it is the noble intention and intention that really counts as the action, not the mere outward deed.

Foodgiving or generosity dāna constitutes the first. kind of meritorious activity, the two others being morality sīla and mental development bhāvanā see: puñña-kiriya-vatthu generosity cāga forms one of the 10 recollections anussati and foodgiving one of the 10 perfections see: pāramī

Dasabala: 'the ten powers of a Perfect One; or, he who Possesses the 10 P.', i.e. the Buddha. About him it is said e.g., M. 12.; A. X, 21:

There, o Bhikkhus, the Perfect One understands according to reality the possible as possible, and the impossible as impossible... the result of past, present and future actions... the path leading to the welfare of all... the world with its many different elements... the different inclinations in beings... the lower and higher abilities in beings... the defilement, purity and rising with regard to the absorptions, deliverances, concentration and attainments... remembering many former rebirths... perceiving with the divine eye how beings vanish and reappear again according to their actions kamma... gaining, through ceasing of all taints, possession of 'deliverance of mind' and 'deliverance through understanding'. ;

Dasaka-kalāpa: see: rūpa-kalāpa

Dasa-pāramī: see: pāramī

Dasa-puñña-kiriya-vatthu: see: puñña-kiriya-vatthu

Death: marana - Contemplation of °: maranānussati - As divine messenger: deva-dūta

Death-consciousness: cuti-citta is one of the 14 functions of consciousness viññāna-kicca.

Deathlessness: amata

Death-proximate kamma: maranāsaññā-kamma kamma.

Deciding function: of consciousness: see: viññāna-kicca

Decline: in morality, understanding, etc.: see: hāna-bhāgiya-sīla- Liable to °, parihāna-dhamma

Defilements: see: kilesa upakkilesa-10 d. of insight: vipassanūpakkilesa see: visuddhi VI. - Round of d., see: vatta 1.

Deliverance: see: vimutti vimokkha- The 8 kinds of d. or liberation, see: vimokkha D. of mind, d. through voidness, Infinite d. etc., see: ceto-vimutti - Desire for d., visuddhi VI, 6. - D. through understanding; paññā-vimutti- 3 doors of d. or gateways of liberation see: visuddhi VI, 8.

Deluded or Confused consciousness: see: Tab. I. 32, 33.

Deluded or Confused-natured: moha-carita see: carita

Deluded or Confusion: see: moha avijjā

Demons' realm: asura-nikāya see: apāya

Departed: the spirits of the: peta

Dependent origination: paticca samuppāda.

Derived materiality: upādā-rūpa, further see: khandha I. B..

Desanā: 'exposition' of the doctrine, may be either an exposition true in the highest sense paramattha-desanā or it may not be true in the highest, but only in the conventional sense vohāra-desanā See paramattha

Desire for deliverance: see: visuddhi VI, 6.

Desireless deliverance: see: vimokkha 1.

Desirelessness: contemplation on: see: vipassanā 12.

Destiny: evil views with fixed d.: niyata-micchā-ditthi. Men with fixed d.: niyata-puggala See gati

Destruction: overcoming, or liberation from, evil things through their d.; samuccheda-pahāna or samuccheda-vimutti see: pahāna

Destructive kamma: upaghātaka-kamma see: kamma.

Detachment: viveka

Determination: see: adhimokkha adhitthāna

Determining: votthapana see: viññāna-kicca

Determining the reality: see: vavatthāna

Deva: lit: the Radiant Ones; related to Lat. deus: divine beings, deities, celestials, are beings who live in happy worlds, and who, as a rule, are invisible to the human eye. They are subject, however, just like all human and other beings, to ever-repeated rebirth, old age and death, and thus are not freed from the cycle of existence and from misery. There are many classes of divine beings.

I. The 6 classes of divine beings of the sense-sphere kāmāvacara or kāma-loka see: avacara loka are cātumahārājika-deva, Tāvatimsa, Yāma, Tusita see: Bodhisatta, Nimmāna-rati, Paranimmita-vasavatti Cf. anussati 6.

II. The divine beings of the fine-material sphere rūpāvacara or rūpaloka are:

1. brahma-pārisajja brahma-purohita mahā-brahmāno see: brahma-kāyika-deva Amongst these 3 classes will be reborn those with a weak, medium or full experience of the 1st absorption jhāna.

2. parittābha appamānābha, ābhassara Here will be reborn those with experience of the 2nd absorption.

3. paritta-subha appamāna-subha, subha-kinna or kinha Here will be reborn those with experience of the 3rd absorption.

4. vehapphala asañña-satta, suddhāvāsa, further see: anāgāmi Amongst the first 2 classes will be reborn those with experience of the 4th absorption, but amongst the 3rd class only anāgāmi s.

III. The 4 grades of divine beings of the immaterial sphere arūpāvacara or arūpa-loka are: the divine beings of the sphere of unbounded space ākāsānañcāyatanūpaga-devā of unbounded consciousness viññānañcāyatanūpaga-deva, of nothingness ākiñcaññāyatanūpaga devā of neither-perception-nor-non-perception nevasaññā-nāsaññāyatanūpaga-devā Here will be reborn those with experience of the 4 immaterial spheres arūpāyatana see: jhāna 5-8.

See Gods and the Universe by Francis Story WHEEL 180/181.

Deva-dūta: 'divine messengers', is a symbolic name for old age, disease and death, since these three things remind man of his future and rouse him to earnest striving. In A. III, 35, it is said:

;Did you, o man, never see in the world a man or a woman eighty, ninety or a hundred years old, frail, crooked as a gable-roof, bent down, resting on crutches, with tottering steps, infirm, youth long since fled, with broken teeth, grey and scanty hair, or baldheaded, wrinkled, with blotched limbs? And did it never occur to you that you also are subject to old age, that you also cannot escape it?

;Did you never see in the world a man or a woman, who being sick, afflicted and grievously ill, and wallowing in their own filth, was lifted up by some people, and put down by others? And did it never occur to you that you also are subject to disease, that you also cannot escape it?

;Did you never see in the world the corpse of a man or a woman, one or two or three days after death, swollen up, blue-black in colour, and full of corruption? And did it never occur to you that you also are subject to death, that you also cannot escape it?; - See M. 130.

Devatānussati: 'recollection of the divine beings'; see: anussati

Development: mental: bhāvanā - Effort to develop, see: padhāna. - Wisdom based on d. see: paññā - Gradual d. of the 8-fold path in the 'progress of the disciple'.

Deviation: from morality and understanding: vipatti.

Devotee: upāsaka.

Dhamma: lit. the 'bearer', constitution or nature of a thing, norm, law jus doctrine; justice, righteousness; quality; thing, object of mind see: āyatana phenomenon'. In all these meanings the word dhamma is to be met with in the texts. The Com. to D. instances 4 applications of this term guna quality, virtue, desanā instruction, pariyatti text, nijjīvatā soullessness, e.g.;all dhammā phenomena, are impersonal,; etc.. The Com. to Dhsee: has hetu condition instead of desanā Thus, the analytical knowledge of the law see: patisambhidā is explained in Vis.M XIV. and in Vibh. as hetumhi-ñāna knowledge of the conditions.

The Dhamma, as the liberating law discovered and proclaimed by the Buddha, is summed up in the 4 Noble Truths see: sacca It forms one of the 3 Gems ti-ratana and one of the 10 recollections anussati.

Dhamma, as object of mind dhammāyatana see: āyatana may be anything past, present or future, material or mental, conditioned or not cf. sankhāra 4, real or imaginary.

Dhamma-cakka: The 'Wheel realm of the Law', is a name for the doctrine 'set rolling' established by the Buddha, i.e. the 4 Noble Truths sacca.

;The Perfect One, o Bhikkhus, the Noble One, fully Enlightened One, in the Deer Park at Isipatana near Benares, has set rolling established the unsurpassed Wheel realm of the Law; M. 141. Cf. cakka

Dhamma-desanā: 'exposition of the Doctrine law'; see: desanā

Dhamma-dhātu: mental-object-element see: dhātu

Dhammānupassanā: 'contemplation of the mental-objects' is the last of the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness satipatthāna

Dhammānusārī: the 'dhamma-devotee', is one of the 7 Noble Disciples ariya-puggala.

Dhammānussati: 'recollection of the Law', is one of the 10 recollections anussati.

Dhamma-patisambhidā: the 'analytical knowledge of the law, is one of the 4 kinds of analytical knowledge patisambhidā.

Dhamma-tthiti-ñāna: 'knowledge of the fixity of law, is a name for that 'insight which is leading up' to the entrance into one of the 4 supra-mundane paths vutthāna-gāminī-vipassanā. In the Susima Sutta see: XII, 70 this ascending insight is called the 'knowledge of the fixity of the law', namely:;At first, Susima, there exists the knowledge of the fixity of the law, and later the knowledge of Nibbāna.; See Vis.M XXI.

Dhamma-vicaya-sambojjhanga: 'investigation of the law as link to Awakening', is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment bojjhanga.

Dhammāyatana: 'mental-object as base' āyatana.

Dhana: 'treasures', a term for the following 7 qualities: faith, morality, moral shame, Fear of Wrongdoing, learning, generosity and understanding. Cf. A. VII, 5, 6.

See 'Treasures of the Noble', by Soma Thera BODHI LEAVES B. 27, BPS.

Dhātu: 'elements', are the ultimate constituents of a whole.

I The 4 physical elements dhātu or mahā-bhūta popularly called earth, water, fire and wind, are to be understood as the primary qualities of matter. They are named in Pāli: pathavī-dhātu, āpo-dhātu, tejo-dhātu, and vāyo-dhātu In Vis.M XI, 2 the four elements are defined thus:,Whatever is characterized by hardness thaddha-lakkkhana is the earth or solid-element; by cohesion ābandhana or fluidity, the water-element; by heating paripācana the fire or heat-element; by strengthening or supporting vitthambhana the wind or motion-element. All four are present in every material object, though in varying degrees of strength. If, for instance, the earth element predominates, the material object is called 'solid', etc. - For the analysis of the 4 elements, see: dhātu-vavatthāna

II The 18 physical and mental elements that constitute the conditions or foundations of the process of perception, are:

1. visual organ eye 10. body-contact
2. auditory organ ear 11. visual-consciousness
3. olfactory organ nose 12. ear-consciousness
4. gustatory organ tongue 13. nose-consciousness
5. tactile organ body 14. tongue-consciousness
6. visible object 15. body-consciousness
7. sound or audible object 16. mind-element
8. odour or olfactive object 17. mental-object
9. gustative object 18. mind-consciousness-element

1-10 are physical; 11-16 and 18 are mental; 17 may be either physical or mental. - 16 performs the function of directing āvajjana towards the object at the inception of a process of sense-consciousness; it further performs the function of receiving sampaticchana the sense-object. 18 performs, e.g., the function of investigation santīrana determining votthapana and registering tadārammana - for its other functions, see: Table I. For the 14 functions of consciousness, see: viññāna-kicca

Cf. M. 115; see: XIV and especially Vibh. II Guide p. 28f, Vis.M XV, 17ff.

Of the many further groupings of elements enumerated in M. 115, the best known is that of the 3 world-elements: the sense-world kāma-dhātu the fine-material world rūpa-dhātu the immaterial world arūpa-dhātu further the sixfold group: the solid, liquid, heat, motion, space, consciousness pathavī, āpo, tejo, vāyo, ākāsa, viññāna see: above I, described in M. 140; see also M. 112.

Dhātu-vavatthāna: 'analysis or determining of the 4 elements', is described in Vis.M XI, 2, as the last of the 40 mental exercises see: bhāvanā In a condensed form this exercise is handed down in D. 22 and M. 10 see: satipatthāna but in detail explained in M. 28, 62, 140. The simile of the butcher in M. 10,Just, o Bhikkhus, as a skilled butcher or butcher's apprentice, after having slaughtered a cow and divided it into separate portions, should sit down at the junction of four highroads; just so does the disciple contemplate this body with regard to the elements; is thus explained in Vis.M XI.:;To the butcher, who rears the cow, brings it to the slaughter-house, ties it, puts it there, slaughters it, or looks at the slaughtered and dead cow, the idea 'cow' does not disappear as long as he has not yet cut the body open and taken it to pieces. As soon, however, as he sits down, after having cut it open and taken it to pieces, the idea 'cow' disappears to him, and the idea 'meat' arises. And he does not think: 'A cow do I sell, or 'A cow do they buy.' Just so, when the Bhikkhu formerly was still an ignorant worldling, layman or a homeless one, the ideas 'living being' or 'man' or 'individual' had not yet disappeared as long as he had not taken this body, whatever position or direction it had, to pieces and analysed it piece by piece. As soon, however, as he analysed this body into its elements, the idea 'living being' disappeared to him, and his mind became established in the contemplation of the elements.; - App..

Dhutānga: lit. means of 'shaking off the defilements'; method of purification, ascetic or austere praxis. These are strict observances recommended by the Buddha to Bhikkhus as a help to cultivate contentedness, withdrawal, energy and the like. One or more of them may be observed for a shorter or longer period of time.

;The Bhikkhu training himself in morality should take upon himself the means of purification, in order to gain those virtues through which the purity of morality will become accomplished, to wit: fewness of needs, contentedness, austerity, detachment, energy, moderation, etc.; Vis.M II.

Vis.M II describes 13 dhutāngas consisting in the vows of

1. Wearing patched-up robes: pamsukūlik'anga,
2. Wearing only three robes:tecīvarik'anga,
3. Going for alms-food: pindapātik'anga,
4. Not omitting any house whilst going for food:sapadānikanga,
5. Eating at one sitting:ekāsanik'anga,
6. Eating only from the food-bowl:pattapindik'anga,
7. Refusing all further food: khalu-pacchā-bhattik'anga,
8. Living in the forest: āraññik'anga,
9. Living under a tree:rukkha-mūlik'anga,
10. Living in the open air:abbhokāsik'anga,
11. Living in a cemetery:susānik'anga,
12. Being satisfied with whatever dwelling: yathā-santhatik'anga,
13. Sleeping in the sitting position and never lying down: nesajjik'anga

These 13 exercises are all, without exception, mentioned in the old sutta texts e.g. M. 5, 113; A.V., 181-90, but never together in one and the same place.

;Without doubt, o Bhikkhus, it is a great advantage to live in the forest as a hermit, to collect one's food, to make one's robes from picked-up rags, to be satisfied with three robes; A.I, 30.

The vow, e.g. of No. 1, is taken in the words:;I reject robes offered to me by householders,; or;I take upon myself the vow of wearing only robes made from picked-up rags.; Some of the exercises may also be observed by the lay-adherent.

Here it may be mentioned that each newly ordained monk, immediately after his being admitted to the Order, is advised to be satisfied with whatever robes, alms-food, dwelling and medicine he gets:;The life of the Bhikkhus depends on the collected food as food... on the root of a tree as dwelling... on robes made from patched-up rags... on stale cow's urine as medicine. May you train yourself therein all your life.;

Since the moral quality of any action depends entirely upon the accompanying intention and intention, this is also the case with these ascetic practices, as is expressly stated in Vis.M Thus the mere external performance is not the real exercise, as it is said Pug. 275-84:;Some one might be going for food; etc. out of stupidity and foolishness - or with evil intention and filled with desires - or out of insanity and mental derangement - or because such practice had been praised by the Noble Ones. ; These exercises are, however properly observed;if they are taken up only for the sake of frugality, of contentedness, of purity, etc.;App.

On dhutānga practice in modern Thailand, see With Robes and Bowl, by Bhikkhu Khantipalo WHEEL 82/83.

Dibba-cakkhu: the 'divine eye', is one of the 6 higher powers abhiññā, and one of the three kinds of knowledge tevijjā,.

Dibba-loka: divine world; see: deva

Dibba-sota: the 'divine ear', is one of the 6 higher powers abhiññā.

Dibba-vihāra: see: vihāra

Disappearance: vigata-paccaya is one of the 24 conditions paccaya. disciplinary code: see: pātimokkha

Discursive thinking: vicāra see: vitakka-vicāra

Disease: one of the 'divine messengers' deva-dūta.

Disinterestedness: regarding the whole world: see: sabbaloke anabhirati-saññā

Dispensation: see: sāsana

Dissociation: vippayutta-paccaya is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Dissolution: contemplation of: khayānupassanā is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight vipassanā.

Dittha-dhamma-vedanīya-kamma: kamma bearing fruit in this present life; see: kamma.

Ditthi: lit. 'sight'; Verbal root: dis to see: view, belief, speculative opinion, insight. If not qualified by sammā 'right', it mostly refers to wrong and evil view or opinion, and only in a few instances to right view, understanding or insight e.g. ditthi-ppatta, ditthi-visuddhi purification of insight; ditthi-sampanna possessed of insight.

Wrong or evil views ditthi or micchā-ditthi are declared as utterly rejectable for being a source of wrong and evil aspirations and conduct, and liable at times to lead man to the deepest abysses of depravity, as it is said in A. I, 22:

;No other thing than evil views do I know, o Bhikkhus, whereby to such an extent the disadvantageous things not yet arisen arise, and the disadvantageous things already arisen are brought to growth and fullness. No other thing than evil views do I know, whereby to such an extent the advantageous things not yet arisen are hindered in their arising, and the advantageous things already arisen disappear. No other thing than evil views do I know, whereby to such an extent human beings at the dissolution of the body, at death, are passing to a way of suffering, into a world of woe, into hell.; Further in A. I, 23:;Whatever a man filled with evil views performs or undertakes, or whatever he possesses of will, aspiration, longing and latent tendencies, all these things lead him to an undesirable, unpleasant and painful state, to woe and suffering.;

From the Abhidhamma Dhs it may be inferred that evil views, whenever they arise, are associated with greed see: Tab. I. 22, 23, 26, 27.

Numerous speculative opinions and theories, which at all times have influenced and still are influencing mankind, are quoted in the sutta-texts. Amongst them, however, the wrong view which everywhere, and at all times, has most misled and confused mankind is the personality-belief, the ego-illusion. This personality-belief sakkāya-ditthi or ego-illusion atta-ditthi is of 2 kinds: eternity-belief and annihilation-belief.

Eternity-belief sassata-ditthi is the belief in the existence of a persisting ego-entity, soul or personality, existing independently of those physical and mental processes that constitute life and continuing even after death.

Annihilation-belief uccheda-ditthi on the other hand, is the belief in the existence of an ego-entity or personality as being more or less identical with those physical and mental processes, and which therefore, at the dissolution at death, will come to be annihilated. - For the 20 kinds of personality-belief, see sakkāya-ditthi

Now, the Buddha neither teaches a personality which will continue after death, nor does he teach a personality which will be annihilated at death, but he shows us that 'personality', 'ego', 'individual', 'man', etc., are nothing but mere conventional designations vohāra-vacana and that in the ultimate sense see: paramattha-sacca there is only this self-consuming process of physical and mental phenomena which continually arise and again disappear immediately. - For further details, see: anattā, khandha, paticcasamuppāda

;The Perfect One is free from any theory ditthigata, for the Perfect One has seen what materiality is, and how it arises and passes away. He has seen what feeling... perception... mental constructions... consciousness are, and how they arise and pass away. Therefore I say that the Perfect One has won complete deliverance through the ceasing, fading away, disappearance, rejection and casting out of all imaginings and conjectures, of all inclination to the 'vain-glory of 'I' and 'mine.; M. 72.

The rejection of speculative views and theories is a prominent feature in a chapter of the Sutta-Nipāta, the Atthaka-Vagga.

The so-called 'evil views with fixed destiny' Niyata-micchāditthi constituting the last of the 10 disadvantageous courses of action kamma-patha, are the following three: 1: The fatalistic 'view of the uncausedness' of existence ahetuka-ditthi, 2: The view of the moral inefficacy of action' akiriya-ditthi 3: Nihilism natthi-kaditthi

1: Was taught by Makkhali-Gosāla, a contemporary of the Buddha who denied every cause for the corruptness and purity of beings, and asserted that everything is minutely predestined by fate.

2: Was taught by Pūrana-Kassapa, another contemporary of the Buddha who denied every kammical effect of good and bad actions: To him who kills, steals, robs, etc., nothing bad will happen. For generosity, self-restraint and truthfulness, etc. no reward is to be expected...

3: Was taught by Ajita-Kesakambali, a third contemporary of the Buddha who asserted that any belief in good action and its reward is a mere confusion, that after death no further life would follow, that man at death would become dissolved into the elements, etc.

For further details about these 3 views, see: D. 2, M. 60; commentarial exposition in WHEEL 98/99, P. 23.

Frequently mentioned are also the 10 antinomies antagāhikāmicchā-ditthi :Finite is the world' or 'infinite is the world'... 'body and soul are identical' or 'body and soul are different' e.g. M. 63.

In the Brahmājala Sutta.D.1, 62 false views are classified and described, comprising all conceivable wrong views and speculations about man and world.

See The All-Embracing Net of Views Brahmājala Sutta, tr. with Com. by Bhikkhu Bodhi BPS.

Further see: D. 15, 23, 24, 28; M. 11, 12, 25, 60, 63, 72, 76, 101, 102, 110; A. II, 16; X, 93; see: XXI, XXIV; Pts.M. Ditthikathā,. etc.

Wrong views ditthi are one of the latent tendencies see: anusaya fermentations see: āsava clingings see: upādāna one of the three modes of perversions see: vipallāsa Unadvantageous consciousness akusala citta rooted in greed, may be either with or without wrong views ditthigata-sampayutta or vippayutta see: Dhs.; Tab I.

On right view sammā-ditthi see: magga and M. 9 Trans. with Com. in 'R. Und.'.

Ditthi-nissita-sīla: 'morality based on wrong views'; see: nissaya

Ditthi-ppatta: the 'vision attainer', is one of the 7 Noble Persons ariya-puggala.

Ditthi-vipallāsa: 'perversion of views'; see: vipallāsa

Ditthi-visuddhi: 'purification of view' is the 3rd of the 7 stages of purification visuddhi III.

Ditth'upādāna: 'clinging to views', is one of the 4 kinds of clinging upādāna.

Divine abode: see: vihāra

Divine ear and eye: see: abhiññā

Divine messengers: the 3: deva-dūta.

Doctrine of the Buddha: see: dhamma sāsana

Dogmatic articles: the 3: titthāyatana.

Domanassa: lit. 'sad-mindedness', grief, i.e. mentally painful feeling cetasika-vedanā is one of the 5 feelings vedanā and one of the 22 abilities indriya. According to the Abhidhamma, grief is always associated with antipathy and grudge, and therefore kammically disadvantageous akusala Cf. Tab. I. 30, 31.

Domanassupavicāra: 'indulging in grief'; see: manopavicāra

Doors of deliverance: the 3: vimokkha-dvāra vimokkha I; visuddhi VI, 8.

Dosa: 'hatred', anger, is one of the 3 disadvantageous, roots mūla. - d. citta hate consciousness; see: Tab. I 30, 31.

Dosa-carita: 'angry-or hate-natured'; see: carita

Doubt: skeptical: vicikicchā, kankhā.

Dread: moral: ottappa see: hiri-ottappa

Drinking: On the evil effects of drinking intoxicants, see: surāmeraya etc.

Dry-visioned: see: sukha-vipassaka

Duccarita: 'evil conduct', is threefold: in deeds, words and thoughts. See kamma-patha I.

Duggati: 'woeful course' of existence; see: gati

Dukkha: 1 'pain', painful feeling, which may be bodily and mental see: vedanā

2 'Suffering', 'ill'. As the first of the Four Noble Truths see: sacca and the second of the three characteristics of existence see: ti-lakkhana the term dukkha is not limited to painful experience as under 1, but refers to the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena which, on account of their impermanence, are all liable to suffering, and this includes also pleasurable experience. Hence 'unsatisfactoriness' or 'liability to suffering' would be more adequate renderings, if not for stylistic reasons. Hence the first truth does not deny the existence of pleasurable experience, as is sometimes wrongly assumed. This is illustrated by the following texts:

;Seeking satisfaction in the world, Bhikkhus, I had pursued my way. That satisfaction in the world I found. In so far as satisfaction existed in the world, I have well perceived it by understanding. Seeking for misery in the world, Bhikkhus, I had pursued my way. That misery in the world I found. In so far as misery existed in the world, I have well perceived it by understanding. Seeking for the escape from the world, Bhikkhus, I had pursued my way. That escape from the world I found. In so far as an escape from the world existed, I have well perceived it by understanding; A. 111, 101.

;If there were no satisfaction to be found in the world, beings would not be attached to the world.  If there were no misery to be found in the world, beings would not be repelled by the world.  If there were no escape from the world, beings could not escape therefrom; A. 111, 102.

See dukkhatā For texts on the Truth of Suffering, see W. of B. and 'path'.

See The Three Basic Facts of Existence, II. Suffering WHEEL 191/193.

Dukkhānupassanā: see: vipassanā

Dukkhatā: abstr. noun fr. dukkha 'the state of suffering', painfulness, unpleasantness, the unsatisfactoriness of existence.,There are three kinds of suffering: 1 suffering as pain dukkha-dukkhatā 2 the suffering inherent in the constructions sankhāra-dukkhatā 3 the suffering in change viparināma-dukkhatā see: XLV, 165; D. 33.

1 is the bodily or mental feeling of pain as actual]y felt. 2 refers to the oppressive nature of all constructions of existence i.e. all conditioned phenomena, due to their continual arising and passing away; this includes also experiences associated with neutral feeling. 3 refers to bodily and mental pleasant feelings,;because they are the cause for the arising of pain when they change; Vis.M XIV, 34f.

Dukkha-patipadā: 'painful progress'; see: patipadā

Dvi-hetuka-patisandhi: see: patisandhi

Dwellings: Suitable d. for Bhikkhus; see: senāsana Satisfied with whatever d.; see: dhutānga

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