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Pabbajjā: lit. 'the going forth', or more fully stated, 'the going forth from home to the homeless life' of a Bhikkhu agārasmā, anagāriyam consists in severing all family and social ties to live the pure life of a monk, in order to realize the goal of final deliverance pointed out by the Enlightened One. Thus, p. has become the name for admission as a sāmanera or novice, i.e. as a candidate for the Order of Bhikkhus, or Bhikkhus.

See Going Forth, by Sumana Samanera WHEEL 27/28 and
Ordination in Theravāda Buddhism WHEEL 56.

Paccavekkhana-ñāna: 'retrospective knowledge', refers to the recollected mental image obtained in concentration, or to any inner experience just passed, as for instance, any absorption jhāna, or any supra-mundane path, or fruition of the path, etc. see: ariya-puggala As it is said:;At the end of fruitional consciousness, consciousness sinks into the subconscious stream of existence bhavanga-sota. Then, breaking off the stream of existence, mental directing manodvārāvajjana arises at the mind-door, for the purpose of reviewing the just passed path-moment. Now, as soon as this stage has passed, 7 moments of impulse consciousness javana-citta one after the other, flash up while reviewing the path. After they again have sunk into the subconscious stream, there arise, for the purpose of reviewing the fruition of the path the moments of directing and impulsion, during whose arising the Bhikkhu is reviewing the path, reviewing the fruition, reviewing the abandoned defilements, reviewing the still remaining defilements, reviewing Nibbāna as object. 'This blessing have I attained'. 'This and that defilement still remains in me'. 'This object have I beheld in my mind', etc.; Vis.M XXII.

Paccavekkhana-suddhi: 'purity of reflection', is a name for wise consideration in using the 4 requisites allowed to the monk, i.e. robes, food, dwelling, and medicine; sīla 4.

Paccaya: 'condition', is something on which something else, the so-called 'conditioned thing', is dependent, and without which the latter cannot be. Many are the ways in which one thing, or one occurrence, may be the condition for some other thing, or occurrence. In the Patthāna, the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka comprising 6 large vols. in the Siamese edition, these 24 modes of conditionality are enumerated and explained, and then applied to all conceivable mental and physical phenomena and occurrences, and thus their conditioned nature is demonstrated.

The first two volumes of the Patthāna have been translated into English by the Venerable U Nārada mūla patthāna Sayadaw of Burma, under the title Conditional Relations Published by the Pāli Text Society, London 1969, 1981. For a synopsis of this work, see Guide VII.

The 24 modes of conditionality are:

1. Root condition: hetu paccaya
2. Object: ārammana
3. Predominance: adhipati
4. Proximity: anantara
5. Contiguity: samanantara
6. Co-nascence: sahajāta
7. Mutuality: aññamañña
8. Support: nissaya
9. Decisive Support: upanissaya
10. Pre-nascene: purejāta
11. Post-nascene: pacchājāta
12. Repitition: āsevana
13. Kamma: kamma
14. Kamma-result: vipāka
15. Nutriment: āhāra
16. Ability: indriya
17. Jhāna: jhāna
18. path: magga
19. Associaton: sampayutta
20. Dissociation: vippayutta
21. Presence: atthi
22. Absence: natthi
23. Disappearance: vigata
24. Non-disappearance: avigata

1: Root-condition hetu-paccaya is that condition that resembles the root of a tree. Just as a tree rests on its root, and remains alive only as long as its root is not destroyed, similarly all kammically advantageous and disadvantageous mental states are entirely dependent on the simultaneity and presence of their respective roots, i.e, of greed lobha, hate dosa confusion moha or greedlessness alobha hatelessness adosa unconfusedness amoha For the definition of these 6 roots, see: mūla

The roots are a condition by way of root for the mental phenomena associated with a root, and for the material phenomena produced thereby e.g. for bodily expression; Patth.

2: Object-condition ārammana-paccaya is called something which, as object, forms the condition for consciousness and mental phenomena. Thus, the physical object of sight consisting in colour and light 'light-wave', is the necessary condition and the sine qua non for the arising of visual-consciousness cakkhu-viññāna etc.; sound 'sound wave' for ear-consciousness sotā-viññāna etc.; further, any object arising in the mind is the condition for mind-consciousness mano-viññāna The mental-object may be anything whatever, material or mental, past, present or future, real or imaginary.

3: Predominance-condition adhipati-paccaya is the term for 4 things, on the preponderance and predominance of which are dependent the mental phenomena associated with them, namely: concentrated intention chanda, energy viriya, consciousness citta and investigation vīmamsā In one and the same state of consciousness, however, only one of these 4 phenomena can be predominant at a time.;Whenever such phenomena as consciousness and mental properties are arising by giving preponderance to one of these 4 things, then this phenomenon is for the other phenomena a condition by way of predominance; Patth.. Cf. iddhi-pāda

4-5: Proximity and contiguity or immediacy-condition anantara and samanantara-paccaya - both being identical - refer to any state of consciousness and mental phenomena associated with them, which are the conditions for the immediately following stage in the process of consciousness. For example, in the visual process, visual-consciousness is for the immediately following mindelement - performing the function of receiving the visible object - a condition by way of contiguity; and so is this mind-element for the next following mind-consciousness element, performing the function of investigating the object, etc. Cf. viññāna-kicca.

6: Co-nascence condjtion sahajāta-paccaya i.e. condition by way of simultaneous arising, is a phenomenon that for another one forms, a condition in such a way that, simultaneously with its arising, also the other thing must arise. Thus, for instance, in one and the same moment each of the 4 mental groups feeling, perception, mental constructions and consciousness is for the 3 other groups a condition by way of co-nascence or co-arising; or again each of the 4 physical elements solid, liquid, heat, motion is such a condition for the other 3 elements. Only at the moment of conception in the mother's womb does materiality physical base of mind serve for the 4 mental groups as a condition by way of conascence.

7: Condition by way of mutuality aññāmañña-paccaya All the just mentioned associated and co-nascent mental phenomena, as well as the 4 physical elements, are, of course, at the same time also conditioned by way of mutuality,;just like three sticks propped up one by another.; The 4 mental groups are one for another a condition by way of mutuality. So also are the 4 elements, and also mentality and materiality at the moment of conception.

8: Support-condition nissaya-paccaya This condition refers either to a pre-nascent see: 10 or co-nascent see: 6 phenomenon which is aiding other phenomena in the manner of a foundation or base, just as the trees have the earth as their foundation, or as the oil-painting rests on the canvas. In this way, the 5 sense-organs and the physical base of the mind are for the corresponding 6 kinds of consciousness a prenascent, i.e. previously arisen, condition by way of support. Further all co-nascent see: 6 phenomena are mutually see: 7 conditioned by each other by way of support.

9: Decisive-support or inducement condition upanissaya-paccaya is threefold, namely a by way of object ārammanūpanissaya-paccaya b by way of proximity anantarūpanissaya c natural decisive support pakatupanissaya These conditions act as strong inducement or cogent reason.

a Anything past, present or future, material or mental, real or imaginary, may, as object of our thinking, become a decisive support, or strong inducement, to moral, immoral or kammically neutral states of mind. Evil things, by wrong thinking about them, become an inducement to immoral life; by right thinking, an inducement to moral life. But good things may be an inducement not only to similarly good things, but also to bad things, such as self-conceit, vanity, envy, etc.

b; is identical with proximity condition No. 4.

c Faith, virtue, etc., produced in one's own mind, or the influence of climate, food, etc., on one's body and mind, may act as natural and decisive support-conditions. Faith may be a direct and natural inducement to charity, virtue to mental training, etc.; greed to theft, hate to murder; unsuitable food and climate to ill-health; friends to spiritual progress or deterioration.

10: Pre-nascence-condition purejāta-paccaya refers to something previously arisen, which forms a base for something arising later on. For example, the 5 physical sense-organs and the physical base of mind, having already arisen at the time of birth, form the condition for the consciousness arising later, and for the mental phenomena associated therewith.

11: Post-nascence-condition pacchā-jāta-paccaya refers to consciousness and the phenomena therewith associated, because they are - just as is the feeling of hunger- a necessary condition for the preservation of this already arisen body.

12: Repetition-condition āsevana-paccaya refers to the kammical consciousness, in which each time the preceding impulse moments javana-citta are for all the succeeding ones a condition by way of repetition and frequency, just as in learning by heart, through constant repetition, the later recitation becomes gradually easier and easier.

13: Kamma-condition kamma-paccaya The pre-natal kamma i.e kamma-intentions, kamma-cetanā in a previous birth is the generating condition cause of the 5 sense-organs, the fivefold sense-consciousness, and the other kamma-produced mental and material phenomena in a later birth. - Kammical intention is also a condition by way of kamma for the co-nascent mental phenomena associated therewith, but these phenomena are in no way kamma-results.

14: Kamma-result-condition vipāka-paccaya The kamma-resultant 5 kinds of sense-consciousness are a condition by way of kamma-result for the co-nascent mental and material phenomena.

15: Nutriment-condition āhāra-paccaya For the 4 nutriments, see: āhāra

16: Ability-condition indriya-paccaya This condition applies to 20 abilities indriya, leaving out No. 7 and 8 from the 22 abilities. Of these 20 abilities, the 5 physical sense-organs 1 - 5, in their capacity as abilities, form a condition only for unmaterial phenomena visual-consciousness etc.; physical vitality 6 and all the remaining abilities, for the co-nascent mental and material phenomena.

17: Jhāna-condition jhāna-paccaya is a name for the 7 so-called jhāna-factors, as these form a condition to the co-nascent mental and material phenomena, to wit: 1 thought-conception vitakka 2 discursive thinking vicāra 3 interest pīti 4 joy sukha 5 sadness domanassa 6 indifference upekkhā 7 concentration samādhi For definition s. Pāli terms.

1, 2, 3, 4, 7 are found in 4 classes of greedy consciousness see: Tab. I. 22-25; 1, 2, 5, 7 in hateful consciousness ib. 30, 31; 1, 2, 6, 7 in the classes of confused consciousness ib. 32, 33.

This condition does not only apply to jhāna alone, but also to the general intensifying 'absorbing' impact of these 7 factors.

18 path-condition magga-paccaya refers to the 12 path-factors, as these are for the kammically advantageous and disadvantageous mental phenomena associated with them, a way of escape from this or that mental constitution, namely: 1 knowledge paññā = sammāditthi right understanding, 2 right or wrong thought-conception vitakka 3 right speech sammā-vācā 4 right bodily action sammā-kammanta, 5 right livelihood sammā-ājīva 6 right or wrong energy viriya 7 right or wrong awareness or mindfulness sati 8 right or wrong concentration samādhi 9 wrong views micchāditthi 10 wrong speech micchā-vācā 11 wrong bodily action micchā-kammanta 12 wrong livelihood micchā-ājīva Cf. magga

19: Association-condition sampayutta-paccaya refers to the co-nascent see: 6 and mutually see: 7 conditioned 4 mental groups khandha as they aid each other by their being associated, by having a common physical base, a common object, and by their arising and disappearing simultaneously; Patth. Com..

20: Dissociation-condition vippayutta-paccaya refers to such phenomena as aid other phenomena by not baving the same physical base eye, etc. and objects. Thus material phenomena are for mental phenomena, and conversely, a condition by way of dissociation, whether co-nascent or not.

21: Presence-condition atthi-paccaya refers to a phenomenon - being pre-nascent or co-nascent - which through its presence is a condition for other phenomena. This condition applies to the conditions Nos. 6, 7, 8, 10, 11.

22: Absence-condition natthi-paccaya refers to consciousness, etc., which has just passed, and which thus forms the necessary condition for the immediately following stage of consciousness by giving it an opportunity to arise. Cf. No. 4.

23: Disappearance-condition vigata-paccaya is identical with No. 22.

24: Non-disappearance-condition avigata-paccaya is identical with No. 21.

These 24 conditions should be known thoroughly for a detailed understanding of that famous formula of the dependent origination paticcasamuppāda. Cf. Fund. III, Guide p. 117 ff. App..

See The Significance of Dependent Origination, by Nyanatiloka WHEEL 140.

Paccaya-sannissita-sīla: 'morality consisting in the wise use of the monk's requisities'; see: sīla 4.

Pacceka-bodhi: 'solitary enlightenment'; see: the foll. and bodhi.

Pacceka-buddha: an 'Solitarily Enlightened One'; or Separately or Individually =pacceka Enlightened One renderings by 'Silent' or 'Private Buddha' are not very apt. This is a term for an Arahat see: ariya-puggala who has realized Nibbāna without having heard the Buddha's doctrine from others. He comprehends the 4 Noble Truths individually pacceka independent of any teacher, by his own effort. He has, however, not the capacity to proclaim the Teaching effectively to others, and therefore does not become a 'Teacher of Gods and Men', a Perfect or Universal Buddha sammā-sambuddha. Paccekabuddhas are described as frugal of speech, cherishing solitude. According to tradition, they do not arise while the Teaching of a Perfect Buddha is known; but for achieving their rank after many aeons of effort, they have to utter an aspiration before a Perfect Buddha.

Canonical references are few; Pug. 29 defin.; A. II, 56; in M. 116, names of many Paccekabuddhas are given; in D. 16 they are said to be worthy of a thūpa dagoba; the Treasure-Store Sutta Nidhikhandha Sutta, Khp. mentions pacceka-bodhi the C. Nidd. ascribes to individual Paccekabuddhas the verses of the Rhinoceros Sutta Khaggavisāna Sutta, Sn. - See bodhi.

See The Paccekabuddha, by Ria Kloppenborg WHEEL 305/307.

Pacchājāta-paccaya: 'post-nascence-condition', is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Pādaka-jjhāna: 'foundation-forming absorption', is an absorption used as a foundation, or starting point, for the higher spiritual powers abhiññā, or for insight vipassanā, leading to the supra-mundane paths see: ariya-puggala The foundation for the former is the 4th absorption; for insight, however, any absorption is suitable. For details, see: samatha-vipassanā - App..

Pada-parama: 'one for whom the words are the utmost attainment'.;Whoever, though having learned much, speaking much, knowing many things by heart, and discoursing much, has not penetrated the truth, such a man is called by that name; Pug. 163.

Padhāna: 'effort.' The 4 right efforts samma-padhāna forming the 6th stage of the 8-fold path i.e. sammā-vāyāma see: magga are: 1 the effort to avoid samvara-padhāna 2 to overcome pahāna-padhāna 3 to develop bhāvanā-padhāna 4 to maintain anurakkhana-padhāna i.e. 1 the effort to avoid disadvantageous akusala states, such as evil thoughts, etc. 2 to overcome disadvantageous states, 3 to develop advantageous kusala states, such as the 7 elements of enlightenment bojjhanga, 4 to maintain the advantageous states.

The Bhikkhu rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, disadvantageous things not yet arisen... to overcome them... to develop advantageous things not yet arisen... to maintain them, and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development. And he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives; A. IV, 13.

1;What now, o Bhikkhus, is the effort to avoid? Perceiving a form, or a sound, or an odour, or a taste, or a bodily or mental contact, the Bhikkhu neither adheres to the whole nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and disadvantageous things might arise, such as greed and sorrow, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses. This is called the effort to avoid.

2;What now is the effort to overcome? The Bhikkhu does not retain any thought of sensual lust, or any other evil, disadvantageous states that may have arisen; he abandons them, dispels them, destroys them, causes them to disappear. This is called the effort to overcome.

3;What now is the effort to develop? The Bhikkhu develops the factors of enlightenment, bent on solitude, on detachment, on ceasing, and ending in deliverance, namely: awareness or mindfulness sati investigation of the law dhamma-vicaya energy viriya rapture pīti tranquillity passaddhi concentraton samādhi equanimity upekkhā This is called the effort to develop.

4;What now is the effort to maintain? The Bhikkhu keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration, such as the mental image of a skeleton, a corpse infested by worms, a corpse blueblack in colour, a festering corpse, a corpse riddled with holes, a corpse swollen up. This is called the effort to maintain; A. IV, 14.

Padhāniyanga: 'elements of effort', are the following 5 qualities: faith, health, sincerity, energy, and understanding M. 85, 90; A. V. 53. See pārisuddhi-padhāniyanga.

Pāguññatā: 'proficiency', namely, of mental properties kāya-pāguññatā and of consciousness citta-pāguññatā are 2 mental phenomena associated with all advantageous consciousness. Cf. Tab. II.

Pahāna: 'overcoming', abandoning. There are 5 kinds of overcoming: 1 overcoming by repression vikkhambhana-pahāna i.e. the temporary suspension of the 5 hindrances nīvarana during the absorptions, 2 overcoming by the opposite tadanga-pahāna 3 overcoming by destruction samuccheda-pahāna 4 overcoming by tranquillization patipassaddhi-pahāna 5 overcoming by escape nissarana-pahāna

1: Among these, 'overcoming by repression' is the pushing back of adverse things, such as the 5 mental hindrances nīvarana q.v, etc., through this or that mental concentration samādhi, just as a pot thrown into moss-clad water pushes the moss aside.

2: Overcoming by the opposite' is the overcoming by opposing this or that thing that is to be overcome, by this or that factor of knowledge belonging to insight vipassanā, just as a lighted lamp dispels the darkness of the night. In this way, the personality-belief sakkāyaditthi see: ditthi is overcome by determining the mental and material phenomena... the view of uncausedness of existence by investigation into the conditions... the idea of eternity by contemplation of impermanency... the idea of happiness by experience of Danger.

3: If through the knowledge of the noble path see: ariya-puggala the mental chains and other evil things cannot continue any longer, just like a tree destroyed by lightning, then such an overcoming is called 'overcoming by destruction'Vis.M XXII, 110f..

4: When, after the disappearing of the mental chains at the entrance into the paths, the mental chains, from the moment of fruition phala onwards, are forever extinct and stilled, such overcoming is called the 'overcoming by tranquillization'.

5;The 'overcoming by escape' is identical with the ceasing and Nibbāna; Pts.M. I. 27. App..

Pahāna-pariññā: s. pariññā

Pain: feeling of: see: vedanā

Pakati-sīla: 'natural or genuine morality', is distinct from those outward rules of conduct laid down for either laymen or Bhikkhus. Those later are the so-called 'prescribed morality' paññāttisīla Cf. sīla

Pakati-upanissaya: 'direct inducement'; see: paccaya

Palibodha: 'obstacles', is the term for the following things if they obstruct the Bhikkhu in the strict practice of a subject of meditation: a crowded monastery, travelling, relatives, association with lay folk, gifts, pupils, repairs in the monastery, sickness, study, magical power. The latter, however, may become an obstacle only in developing insight vipassanā. See Vis.M III, 29ff. - App.

Pamsukūlik'anga: the 'vow to wear only robes made from picked-up rags', is one of the ascetic rules of purification; see: dhutānga

Pānātipātā veramanī: 'abstaining from the killing of living beings', is the first of the 5 moral rules binding upon all Buddhists; see: sikkhāpada

Pañcadvārāvajjana: 'directing to the 5-sense-doors'; see: viññāna-kicca

Pañca-sīla: s. sikkhāpada

Pañca-vokāra-bhava: 'five-group existence', is a name for existence in the sense-sphere kāmāvacara or in the fine-material sphere rūpāvacara avacara since all the 5 groups of existence khandha are found there. In the immaterial sphere arūpāvacara see: avacara however, only the 4 mental groups are found, and in the world of unconscious beings asaññā-satta only the one materiality group. Cf eka-vokāra-bhava and catu-pañca-vokāra-bhāva further see: avacara- App.: vokāra.

Pañhā-byākarana: 'answering questions'.;There are, o Bhikkhus, 4 ways of answering questions: there are questions requiring a direct answer; questions requiring an explanation; questions to be answered by counter-questions; questions to be rejected as wrongly put.; See D. 33; A. III, 68; A. IV, 42.

Paññā: 'understanding, knowledge, understanding, insight', comprises a very wide field. The specific Buddhist knowledge or understanding, however, as part of the Noble 8-fold path magga to deliverance, is insight vipassanā, i.e. that intuitive knowledge which brings about the 4 stages of Nobility and the realization of Nibbāna see: ariya-puggala and which consists in the penetration of the impermanency anicca, misery dukkha see: sacca and impersonality anattā of all forms of existence. Further details, see: under tilakkhana.

With regard to the condition of its arising one distinguishes 3 kinds of knowledge knowledge based on thinking cintā-mayā-paññā knowledge based on learning suta-mayā-paññā knowledge based on mental development bhāvanā -mayā-paññā D. 33.

'Based on thinking' is that knowledge which one has accquired through one's own thinking, without having learnt it from others. 'Based on learning' is that knowledge which one has heard from others and thus acquired through learning. 'Based on mental development' is that knowledge which one has acquired through mental development in this or that way, and which has reached the stage of full concentration; appanā Vis.M XIV.

Wisdom is one of the 5 mental abilities see: bala one of the 3 kinds of training sikkhā, and one of the perfections see: pāramī For further details, see: vipassanā and the detailed exposition in Vis.M XIV, 1-32.

Paññatti-sīla: 'prescribed morality', is a name for the disciplinary rules of the Bhikkhu or layman prescribed by the Buddha, as distinguished from natural or genuine morality pakati-sīla see: sīla

Paññā-vimutti: 'deliverance through understanding' or understanding', signifies, according to Com. to A.V, 142, the understanding associated with the fruition of Nobility arahatta-phala In Pug. 31 and similarly in M. 70, it is said:;A Bhikkhu may not have reached in his own person the 8 liberations =jhāna, but through his understanding the fermentations have come to ceasing in him. Such a person is called understanding-liberated; paññā -vimutta. Com. to Pug.:;He may be one of five persons: either a practiser of bare insight sukha-vipassako, or one who has attained to Nobility after rising from one of the absorptions.; See S. XII, 7.

The term is often linked with ceto-vimutti deliverance of mind'.

Papañca: Sanskrit prapañca In doctrinal usage, it signifies the expansion, differentiation, 'diffuseness' or 'manifoldness' of the world; and it may also refer to the 'phenomenal world' in general, and to the mental attitude of 'worldliness'. In A. IV, 173, it is said:;As far as the field of sixfold sense-contact extends, so far reaches the world of diffuseness or the phenomenal world; papañcassa gati as far as the world of diffuseness extends, so far extends the field of sixfold sense-contact. Through the complete fading away and cessation of the field of sixfold sense-contact, there comes about the cessation and the coming-to-rest of the world of diffuseness papañca-nirodho papañca-vupasamo. The opposite term nippapañca is a name for Nibbāna S. LIII, in the sense of 'freedom from samsaric diffuseness'. - Dhp. 254:;Mankind delights in the diffuseness of the world, the Perfect Ones are free from such diffuseness; papañcābhiratā pajā nippapañca tathāgatā The 8th of the 'thoughts of a great man' mahā-purisa-vitakka A. VIII, 30 has:,This Dhamma is for one who delights in non-diffuseness the unworldly, Nibbāna; it is not for him who delights in worldliness papañca. For the psychological sense of 'differentiation', see M. 18 Madhupindika Sutta:;Whatever man conceives vitakketi that he differentiates papañceti and what he differentiates, by reason thereof ideas and considerations of differentiation papañca-saññā -sankhā arise in him.; On this text and the term papañca see Dr. Kurt Schmidt in German Buddhist Writers WHEEL 74/75 p. 61ff. - See D. 21 Sakka's Quest; WHEEL 10, p.

In the commentaries, we often find a threefold classification tanhā-, ditthi-, māna-papañca which probably means the world's diffuseness created hy craving, false views and conceit. - See M. 123; A. IV, 173; A. VI, 14, Sn. 530, 874, 916.

ñānananda Bhikkhu, in Concept and Reality: An Essay on Papañca and Papañca-saññā-sankhā Kandy 1971, Buddhist Publication Society, suggests that the term refers to man's;tendency towards proliferation in the realm of concepts; and proposes a rendering by;conceptual proliferation,; which appears convincing in psychological context, e.g. in two of the texts quoted above, A. IV, 173 and M. 18. - The threefold classification of papañca by way of craving, false views and conceit, is explained by the author as three aspects, or instances, of the foremost of delusive conceptualisations, the ego-concept.

Parāmāsa: 'adherence', attachment, 'misapprehension', is according to Vis.M XXII a name for wrong views; in that sense it occurs in Dhs. 1174 ff. - See sīlabbata-parāmāsa.

Paramattha: sacca-vacana-Desanā 'truth or term, exposition that is true in the highest or ultimate sense', as contrasted with the 'conventional truth' vohāra-sacca which is also called 'commonly accepted truth' sammuti-sacca in Skr: samvrti-satya The Buddha, in explaining his doctrine, sometimes used conventional language and sometimes the philosophical mode of expression which is in accordance whith unconfused insight into reality. In that ultimate sense, existence is a mere process of physical and mental phenomena within which, or beyond which, no real ego-entity nor any abiding substance can ever be found. Thus, whenever the suttas speak of man, woman or person, or of the rebirth of a being, this must not be taken as being valid in the ultimate sense, but as a mere conventional mode of speech vohāra-vacana.

It is one of the main characteristics of the Abhidhamma Pitaka, in distinction from most of the Sutta Pitaka, that it does not employ conventional language, but deals only with ultimates, or realities in the highest sense paramattha-dhammā But also in the Sutta Pitaka there are many expositions in terms of ultimate language paramattha-desanā namely, wherever these texts deal with the groups khandha elements dhātu or sense-sources āyatana and their components; and wherever the 3 characteristics tilakkhana are applied. The majority of Sutta texts, however, use the conventional language, as appropriate in a practical or ethical context, because it;would not be right to say that 'the groups' khandha feel shame, etc

It should be noted, however, that also statements of the Buddha couched in conventional language, are called 'truth' vohāra-sacca being correct on their own level, which does not contradict the fact that such statements ultimately refer to impermanent and impersonal processes.

The two truths - ultimate and conventional - appear in that form only in the commentaries, but are implied in a sutta-distinction of 'explicit or direct meaning' nītattha and 'implicit meaning to be inferred' neyyattha Further, the Buddha repeatedly mentioned his reservations when using conventional speech, e.g. in D. 9:,These are merely names, expressions, turns of speech, designations in common use in the world, which the Perfect Qne Tathāgata uses without misapprehending them.; See also S. I. 25.

The term paramattha in the sense here used, occurs in the first para. of the Kathāvatthu, a work of the Abhidhamma Pitaka see: Guide, p. 62. App: vohāra.

The commentarial discussions on these truths Com. to D. 9 and M. 5 have not yet been translated in full. On these see K N. Jayatilleke, Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge London, 1963, pp. 361ff.

In Mahāyana, the Mādhyamika school has given a prominent place to the teaching of the two truths.

Paramī: Pāramitā: 'perfection'. Ten qualities leading to Buddhahood: 1 perfection in giving or generosity; dāna-pāramī 2 morality sīla-p 3 renunciation nekkhamma-p 4 understanding paññā-p 5 energy viriya-p 6 patience or forbearance; khanti 7 truthfulness sacca-p 8 resolution adhitthāna-p 9 loving-kindness mettā-p 10 equanimity upekkhā-p..

These qualities were developed and brought to maturity by the Bodhisatta in his past existences, and his way of practising them is illustrated in many of the Birth Stories Jātaka, of which, however, only the verses are regarded as canonical. Apart from the latter, the 10 pāramī are mentioned in only two other canonical works which are probably apocryphal, the Buddhavamsa in the Story of Sumedha and the Cariyapitaka. A long and methodical exposition of the pāramī is given in the concluding Miscellaneous Section pakinnakakathā of the Com. to Cariyapitaka

In Vis.M IX it is said that through developing the 4 sublime states loving-kindness, Pity, altruistic joy, equanimity; see: brahma-vihāra one may reach these 10 perfections, namely:

As the Great Beings mahā-satta a synonym often found in the Mahāyana scriptures for Bodhisatta, i.e. 'Enlightenment Being or Being destined for Buddhahood are concerned about the welfare of living beings, not tolerating the suffering of beings, wishing long duration to the higher states of happiness of beings, and being impartial and just to all beings, therefore 1: They give food dāna to all beings so that they may be happy, without Investigating whether they are worthy or not. 2: By avoiding to do them any harm, they observe morality sīla. 3: In order to bring morality to perfection, they train themselves in renunciation nekkhamma 4: In order to understand clearly what is beneficial and injurious to beings, they purify their understanding paññā 5: For the sake of the welfare and happiness of others they constantly exert their energy viriya 6: Though having become heroes through utmost energy, they are nevertheless full of forbearance khanti toward s the many failings of beings. 7: Once they have promised to give or do something, they do not break their promise 'truthfulness'; sacca 8: With unshakable resolution adhitthāna they work for the weal and welfare of beings. 9: With unshakable kindness mettā they are helpful to all. 10: By reason of their equanimity upekkhā they do not expect anything in return; Vis.M IX. 24.

In the Mahāyana scriptures, where the pāramī occupy a much more prominent place, a partly differing list of six is given: generosity, morality, patience, energy, meditation. and understanding.

Literature: Ten Jātaka Stories illustrating the 10 pāramī by I. B. Horner London 1957, Luzac & Co.; Buddhavamsa & Cariyapitaka. tr. by I. B. Horner Minor Anthologies III, Sacred Books of the Buddhists. PTS. - Narada Thera, The Buddha & His Teachings, Ch. 41; Parami BPS - The treatise on the perfections from the Com. to Cariyapitaka has been translated in The Discourse on the All-Embracing Net of Views Brahmajala Sutta, with Com.. tr. by Bhikkhu Bodhi BPS.

Paranimmita-vasavatti-deva: 'divine beings with power over the productions of others', constitute a class of divine beings in the sense-sphere kāma-loka. Māra is said to be their ruler. Cf.loka deva I.

Parassa ceto-pariya-ñāna: 'penetration of the mind of others', is one of the higher powers abhiññā.

Paricchinnākāsa-kasina: 'limited-space kasina' = space kasina; see: kasina App..

Parihāna-dhamma: 'liable to decline'.;Now, someone reaches the attainments absorptions: jhāna of the fine-material or immaterial sphere see: avacara But he does not reach them according to his wish, and not without trouble and exertion; and not according to his wish with regard to place, object and duration, does he enter them, or rise therefrom. Therefore it is well possible that such a monk, through negligence, may lose these attainments. Such a person is said to be liable to decline; Pug. 5.

Parikamma: 'preparatory-moment': see: javana

Parikamma-nimitta: 'preparatory image'; see: nimitta, kasina.

Parikamma-samādhi: 'preparatory concentration', is the initial and still undeveloped concentration of mind; see: samādhi

Parinibbāna: 'full Nibbāna', is a synonym for Nibbāna; this term, therefore, does not refer exclusively to the ceasing of the 5 groups of existence at the death of the Noble One, though often applied to it. Cf. nibbāna

Pariññā: 'full understanding', full comprehension. There are 3 kinds of mundane f.u. lokiya-p namely: full understanding of the known ñāta-p f.u. as investigating tīrana-p and f.u. as overcoming pahāna-p In Vis.M XX, 3 it is said:

Full understanding of the known is the knowledge consisting in the discernment of the specific characteristics of such and such phenomena, as: 'Materiality has the characteristic of being oppressed; feeling has the characteristic of being felt, etc.'

Full understanding by investigating is that insight-understanding vipassanā-paññā; see: vipassanā which has the 3 general characteristics impermanence, suffering, no-self as its objects, and which arises when attributing a general characteristic to physical and mental phenomena, as for instance: 'Materiality is impermanent, feeling is impermanent, etc.'

Full understanding by overcorning is that insight-understanding which has the above mentioned general characteristics as its objects, and arises after overcoming the idea of permanence, etc.; - App..

Pārisuddhi-padhāniyanga: the 4 'elements of the effort for purity', are: effort for purity of morality sīla-parisuddhi-padhāniyanga for purity of mind citta of view ditthi of deliverance vimutti Cf. A. IV, 194. - Another 9 factors are enumerated in D. 34, namely the 7 'stages of purification see: visuddhi and the effort for purity of higher knowledge vijjā-p. p and of deliverance vimutti-p. p..

Pārisuddhi-sīla: 'morality consisting in purity', is fourfold: restraint with regard to the Bhikkhus' Disciplinary Code, sense restraint, purity of livelihood, morality with regard to the Bhikkhus' 4 requisites; for details, see: sīla

Parittābha: and paritta-subha: are 2 classes of divine beings of the fine-material sphere; see: deva II.

Pariyatti: 'learning the doctrine', the 'wording of the doctrine'. In the 'progress of the disciple', 3 stages may be distinguished: theory, practice, realization, i.e. 1 learning the wording of the doctrine pariyatti 2 practising it patipatti 3 penetrating it pativedha and realising its goal. App..

Pasāda-rūpa: 'sensitive materiality', is a name for the 5 physical sense-organs responding to sense-stimuli. Cf. āyatana

Passaddhi: passaddhi-sambojjhanga:: 'tranquillity, as link to Awakening', consists in tranquillity of mental properties kāya-passaddhi and tranquillity of consciousness citta-passaddhi Cf. bojjhanga further Tab. II.

Patched-up robes: the practice of wearing: is one of the ascetic rules of purification dhutānga.

Path path: and Path" not-path: the knowledge and vision regarding: see: visuddhi V.

Pathavī-dhātu: 'earth-element' or 'solid element'. It is cognizable through the sensations of pressure, touch, cold, heat. pain, etc. - About the 4 elements. see: dhātu, khandha I. A..

Pathavī-kasina: 'earth-kasina' see: kasina

Path-condition: magga-paccaya is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Path-knowledge" path-knowledge: the 4 kinds of: see: visuddhi VII.

Path-result" path-result: fruition: phala

Patibhāga-nimitta: s. nimitta, kasina, samādhi.

Patibhāna-patisambhidā: the 'analytical knowledge of ready wit': see: patisambhidā

Paticcasamuppāda: 'dependent origination', is the doctrine of the conditionality of all physical and psychical phenomena, a doctrine which, together with that of impersonality anattā, forms the indispensable condition for the real understanding and realization of the teaching of the Buddha. It shows the conditionality and dependent nature of that uninterrupted flux of many physical and psychical phenomena of existence conventionally called the ego, or man, or animal, etc.

Whereas the doctrine of impersonality, or anattā proceeds analytically, by splitting existence up into the ultimate constituent parts, into mere empty, unsubstantial phenomena or elements, the doctrine of dependent origination, on the other hand, proceeds synthetically, by showing that all these phenomena are, in some way or other, conditionally related with each other. In fact, the entire Abhidhamma Pitaka, as a whole, treats really of nothing but just these two doctrines: phenomenality - implying impersonality and conditionality of all existence. The former or analytical method is applied in Dhammasangani, the first book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka; the latter or synthetical method, in Patthāna, the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. For a synopsis of these two works, see: Guide I and VII.

Though this subject has been very frequently treated by Western authors, by far most of them have completely misunderstood the true meaning and purpose of the doctrine of dependent origination, and even the 12 terms themselves have often been rendered wrongly.

The formula of dependent origination runs as follows:

1. avijiā-paccayā sankhārā Through ignorance are conditioned the sankhāras,; i.e. the rebirth-producing intentions cetanā or 'kammic-constructions'.

2. sankhāra-paccayā viññānam Through the kammic-constructions in the past life is conditioned consciousness in the present life

3. viññāna-paccayā nāma-rūpam Through consciousness are conditioned the mental and physical phenomena nāma-rūpa i.e. that which makes up our so-called individual existence.

4. nāma-rūpa-paccayā salāyatanam Through the mental and physical phenomena are conditioned the 6 bases,; i.e. the 5 physical sense-organs, and consciousness as the sixth.

5. salāyatana-paccayā phasso Through the six sense sources is conditioned the sensorial mental contact

6. phassa-paccayā vedanā Through the contact is conditioned feeling

7. vedanā-paccayā tanhā Through feeling is conditioned craving

8. tanhā-paccayā upādānam Through craving is conditioned clinging

9. upādāna-paccayā bhavo Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming,; consisting in the active and the passive life process, i.e. the rebirth-producing kamma-making kamma-bhava and, as its result, the rebirth-process upapatti-bhava.

10. Bhava-paccayā jāti Through the rebirth-producing kamma-process of becoming is conditioned rebirth

11. jāti-paccayā jarāmaranam etc.:;Through rebirth are conditioned old age and death sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair. Thus arises this whole mass of suffering again in the future

The following diagram shows the relationship of dependence between three successive lives:

PAST 1. Ignorance avijjā

2. kammic-constructions sankhārā

kamma-making kammabhava

5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10

PRESENT 3. Consciousness viññāna

4. Mind & Matter nāma-rūpa

5. six sense sources āyatana

6. contact phassa

7. Feeling vedanā

Rebirth-Process upapattibhava

5 results: 3-7

8. Craving tanhā

9. Clinging upādāna

10. Process of Becoming bhava

kamma-making kammabhava

5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10

FUTURE 11. Rebirth jāti

12. Old Age and Death jarā-marana

Rebirth-Process upapattibhava

5 results: 3-7

Before taking up the study of the following exposition, it is suggested that the reader first goes thoroughly through the article on the 24 conditions see: paccaya For a thorough understanding of the paticcasamuppāda he should know the main modes of conditioning, as decisive support, co-nascence, pre-nascence, etc.

For a closer study of the subject should be consulted: Vis.M XVII; Fund. III; Guide Ch. VII and Appendix; Dependent Origination, by Piyadassi Thera WHEEL 15; The Significance of Dependent Origination WHEEL 140.

1: Through ignorance are conditioned the kammic-constructions; avijjā-paccayā sankhārā i.e. all advantageous and disadvantageous actions kamma of body, speech and mind, are conditioned through ignorance. By 'kammic-constructions' are meant kammically advantageous and disadvantageous intentions cetanā or intentional activities, in short kamma, and Fund. II.

In view of the many misconceptions current in the West, it is necessary to repeat here that kamma, as a technical term, never signifies anything but moral or immoral action, i.e. the above mentioned intentional activities, or kammic-constructions, as either causing results in the present life or being the causes of future destiny and rebirth. Thus kamma, as a philosophical term, never means the result of action, as often wrongly conceived by Western authors.

Now, in what way are the kammic-constructions conditioned through ignorance? As concerns the disadvantageous kammaconstructions associated with greed, hate or confusion lobha, dosa, moha these are always and in all circumstances, conditioned through the simultaneous ignorance inseparably associated therewith. Thus, ignorance is for the disadvantageous kammic-constructions a condition by way of conascence sahajāta-paccaya association sampayutta-paccaya presence atthi-paccaya etc. Ignorance further may be for them a condition by way of decisive support or inducement upanissaya-paccaya if, for instance, ignorance coupled with greed induces a man to commit evil deeds, such as killing, stealing, unlawful sexual intercourse, etc. In these cases, therefore, ignorance is a 'natural decisive suppport' or 'direct inducement' pakati-upanissaya-paccaya It also may become an indirect inducement, by way of object ārammanūpanissaya-paccaya of our thinking. This takes place, if, for example, someone remembers a former state of ignorance combined with sensual enjoyment, and in doing so kammically disadvantageous states spring up, such as sensual desire, grief, etc.

For the advantageous kusala kammic-constructions, ignorance can only be a condition by way of decisive support upanissaya never by way of co-nascence sahajāta etc., since advantageous consciousness at that very moment, of course, cannot be associated with any disadvantageous phenomenon, such as ignorance. Ignorance is a 'natural decisive support' or 'direct inducement' pakatupanissaya for example, if, induced by ignorance and vanity, one exerts oneself to attain the absorptions, and thus finally, through perseverance, reaches these advantageous states of mind. Ignorance may also be for advantageous kammic-constructions a 'decisive support' or 'inducement by way of object' ārammanūpanissaya if, for example, one refleets on ignorance as the root of all misery in the world, and thus finally attains insight and entrance into one of the 4 supra-mundane paths of Nobility.

For ignorance, see: avijjā for kammic-constructions, see: sankhāra.

2.;Through the kammic-constructions is conditioned consciousness; sankhāra-paccayā viññānam This proposition teaches that the advantageous and disadvantageous kammic-constructions are the causes of future rebirth in an appropriate sphere gati The kammic-constructions of the previous life condition the budding in a new mother's womb of a fresh psycho-physical aggregation of the 5 groups of existence see: khandha which here are represented by consciousness viññāna All such kamma-resultant vipāka consciousness, however, such as visual-consciousness seeing, etc., as well as all the mental phenomena associated therewith feeling, etc., are kammically neutral. It should be understood that already from the very first moment of conception in the mother's womb, this kamma resultant eonsciousness of the embryonic being is functioning.

Against Dr. Paul Dahlke's misconception of the paticcasamuppāda as;one single kammical moment of personal experience,; and of the 'simultaneity' of all the 12 links of this formula, I should like to state here distinctly that the interpretation of the p. given here as comprising 3 successive lives not only agrees with all the different schools of Buddhism and all the ancient commentaries, but also is fully identical with the explanations given already in the canonical suttas. Thus, for example, it is said verbatim in Nidāna-Samyutta S. XII, 51:;Once ignorance 1 and clinging 9 are extinguished, neither kammically meritorious, nor disadvantageous, nor imperturbable kammic-constructions 2=10 are produced, and thus no consciousness 3=11 will spring up again in a new mother's womb.; And further:;For, if consciousness were not to appear in the mother's womb, would in that case mentality and materiality 4 arise?; Cf. above diagram.

The purpose of the Buddha in teaching the p. was to show to suffering mankind how, depending on ignorance and confusion, this present existence and suffering has come about, and how through ceasing of ignorance, and of the craving and clinging conditioned thereby, no more rebirth will follow, and thus the standstill of the process of existence will have been realized and therewith the ceasing of all suffering.

3.;Through consciousness are conditioned materiality and mentality; viññāna-paccayā nāma-rūpani This proposition implies that without consciousness there ean be no mental and physical process of existence. By mentality nāma is here to be understood the kamma-resultant vipāka mental phenomena, such as feeling vedanā perception saññā intention cetanā non-kammical intention is here meant, consciousness-contact phassa directing manasikāra M. 9; S. XII, 2. For the basic 7 mental phenomena inseparably associated with every state of consciousness, see: nāma By materiality rūpa is meant the 4 physical elements see: dhātu and the materiality dependent thereon see: khandha I.

Mentality is always conditioned through consciousness; i.e. consciousness viññāna is for mentality nāma a condition by way of conascence sahajāta mutuality aññamañña association sampayutta etc., since the 4 mental groups at all times form an inseparable unit.

Consciousness viññāna is for materiality rūpa a condition by way of co-nascence only at the moment of conception, thereafter a condition by way of post-nascence pacchājāta-paccaya paccaya11 and nutriment āhāra i.e. as a support. Just as the repeatedly arising hunger is a condition and support for the pre-arisen body, so is the conseiousness arising afterwards a condition and support for the maintenance of this pre-arisen body.

4.;Through mentality and materiality are conditioned the 6 bases nāma-rūpa paccayā salāyatanam The 6 bases are a name for the 5 physical sense-organs and, as 6th, the mind-base manāyatana, i.e. consciousness.

Mentality nāma see: 3 is for the 5 physical bases āyatana or sense-organs, a condition by way of post-nascence. Cf. end of 3.

Mentality nāma i.e. feeling. etc., is for the 6th base, or consciousness - as being always inseparably associated therewith a condition by way of co-nascencc. etc.

Materiality rūpa here the 4 elements, are for the 5 physical bases āyatana or sense-organs, a condition by way of support nissaya

Materiality rūpa here the 5 physical sense-organs, are for the 6th base āyatana, i.e. consciousness, a condition by way of support and pre-nascence purejāta-paccaya.

5.;Through the 6 bases is conditioned the sensorial and mental contact; salāyatana-paccayā phasso for without the 5 physical bases, or sense-organs, there can be no sense-contacts; and without the 6th base, or consciousness, there can be no mental contact.

Thus, the 5 physical bases, eye, etc., are for the corresponding 5 sense-contacts visual contact, etc. a condition by way of support nissaya and pre-nascence purejāta whereas the 6th, the mind-base consciousness, is for the mental contact a condition by way of co-nascence, association, mutuality, etc.

6.;Through contact is conditioned feeling; phassa-paccayā vedanā i.e. the sensorial and the mental contacts are for the feeling associated therewith a condition by way of co-nascence, association, mutuality, etc.

7.;Through feeling is conditioned craving; vedanā-paccayā tanhā Any kamma-resultant feeling, whether pleasant, painful or neutral, bodily or mental, past or expected, may become for craving a condition of decisive support by way of object ārammanūpanissaya Even physically and mentally painful feeling may, through the desire to be released therefrom, become for craving a condition of decisive support by way of object ārammanupanissaya.

8.;Through craving is conditioned clinging; tanhā-paccayā upādānam 'Clinging' is explained as an intensified form of craving. It is of 4 kinds: 1 clinging to sensuality, 2 to erroneous views, 3 to rules and ritual, 4 to personality-belief. sense-craving is to 1 a condition of natural decisive support pakatupanissaya. For 2-4, craving is a condition by way of co-nascence, mutuality, root hetu etc. It also may be a condition of natural decisive support. For example, through craving for divine rebirth, etc. people often may be induced to cling to certain rules and rituals, with the hope of reaching thereby the object of their desires.

9.;Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming; upādāna-paccayā bhavo i.e. the advantageous and disadvantageous active kamma-making of becoming kamma-bhava, as well as the kamma-resultant vipāka passive process, the so-called 'rebirth-process' upapatti-bhava The kamma-making kammabhava comprises the 5 kammical causes: ignorance, kammic-constructions, craving, clinging, kamma-making see: 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, of the diagram; the rebirth-process upapatti-bhava comprises the 5 kamma-results see: 3-7 of the diagram.

The kamma-making is here, correctly speaking, a collective name for generative kammic intention kamma-cetanā and all the mental phenomena associated therewith, whilst the 2nd link kammic-constructions designates only kammic intention see: āyūhana Both, however, i.e. the 2nd and 10th proposition, practically state one and the same thing, namely, that kamma is the cause of rebirth, as we shall see under 10.

Clinging upādāna may be an inducement of decisive support upanissaya to many kinds of advantageous and disadvantageous kamma. sense-clinging kāmūpādāna i.e. clinging to sense-objects, for example, may be a direct inducement to murder, theft, unlawful intercourse with the other sex, evil words and thoughts, etc. Clinging to rules and ritual sīlabbatūpādāna may lead to self-complacency, fanaticism, cruelty, etc. Clinging is also for the evil kamma associated therewith, a condition by way of co-nascence, association, etc.

10.;Through the process of becoming is conditioned rebirth; bhava-paccayā jāti i.e. through the advantageous and disadvantageous kamma-making kamma-bhava is conditioned the rebirth-process upapatti-bhava The 2nd and 10th propositions, as already pointed out, practically teach one and the same thing, namely, that kamma is the cause of rebirth; in other words, that the kammical intention cetanā is the seed out of which springs the new life, just as from the mango-seed is generated the new mango-tree.

Hence, the 5 kammical causes ignorance, etc. of the past birth are the condition for the kamma-results of the present birth; and the 5 kammical causes of the present birth are the condition for the 5 kamma-results of the next birth see: diagram. As it is said in Vis.M XVII:

Five causes were there in the past,
Five fruits we find in present life;
Five causes do we now produce,
Five fruits we reap in future life

Now, just as in this process of continually changing mental and bodily phenomena, nothing can be found that would pass from one moment to the next moment, so also there is no enduring entity, ego, or personality, within this process of existence that would transmigrate from one life to the next see: nāma-rūpa, anattā, patisandhi, khandha No being and no living soul passed from the former life to this life, and yet this present embryo could not have entered into existence without the preceding causes; Vis.M XVII.;Many things may serve to illustrate this fact, as for example the echo, the light of a lamp, the contact of a seal, or the image produced by a mirror; ib..

Whosoever is in the dark with regard to the conditionally arisen things, and does not understand that kamma originates from ignorance, etc., he thinks that it must be his ego that knows or does not know, acts and causes to act, and that arises at rebirth. Or he thinks that the atoms, or a creator, with the help of this embryonic process, must have formed this body, or that it is the ego endowed with abilities that has contacts, feels, desires, clings, continues and enters again into existence in a new birth. Or he thinks that all beings have been born through fate, or fortuitously; Vis.M XVII.

Now, on hearing that Buddhism teaches that everything whatever in the world is determined by conditions some might come to the conclusion that Buddhism teaches some sort of fatalism, and that man has no free will, or that will is not free.

The problem 'whether man has a free will' does not exist for, the Buddhist, since he knows that, apart from these everchanging mental and physical phenomena, no such entity as 'man' can be found, and that 'man' is merely a name not relating to any reality. And the question, 'whether will is free', must be rejected for the reason that 'will', or intention, is a mental phenomenon flashing forth only for a moment, and that as such it had not any existence at the preceding moment. For of a thing which is not, or is not yet, one cannot, properly speaking, ask whether it is free or unfree. The only admissible question would be whether the arising of 'will' is independent of conditions, or whether it is conditioned. But the same question would equally apply also to all the other mental phenomena, as well as to all physical phenomena, in other words: to everything and every occurrence whatever. And the answer would be: whether will arises, or whether feeling arises, or whether any other mental or any physical phenomenon arises, the arising of anything whatsoever is dependent on conditions, and without conditions nothing ever can arise or enter into existence.

According to Buddhism, everything mental or physical happens in accordance with laws and conditions; and if it were otherwise, chaos and blind chance would reign. But such a thing is impossible and contradicts all laws of thinking. Cf. Fund. III end.

11.;Through rebirth are conditioned old age and death; jātipaccayā jarā-maranam Without birth there can be no old age and death, no suffering and misery. Thus rebirth is to old age and death, etc. a condition by way of decisive support upanissaya.

The Buddha has said D. 15:;Profound, Ananda. is this dependent origination, and profound does it appear. It is through not understanding, not penetrating, this law that this world resembles a tangled ball of thread, a bird's nest, a thicket of sedge or reed, and that man does not escape from the lower states of existence, from the course of woe and perdition, suffering from the round of rebirth.; And further M. 28: 'Whoso understands the dependent origination understands the Dhamma; and whoso understands the Dhamma understands the dependent origination.

Patience: or forbearance khanti one of the 10 perfections pāramī,.

Patigha: - 1. In an ethical sense, it means: 'repugnance', grudge, resentment, anger, and is a synonym of vyāpāda, ill-will' see: nīvarana and dosa 'hate' see: mūla It is one of the latent tendencies anusaya.

2. 'Sense-reaction'. Applied to five-sense cognition, p.: occurs in the following contexts:

a as patigha-saññā 'perception of sense-reaction', said to be absent in the immaterial absorptions see: jhāna 5. Alternative renderings: resistance-perception, reflex-perception

b as patigha-samphassa 'mental contact caused by 5fold sensorial reaction' D. 15; see: phassa

c as sappatigha-rūpa 'reacting materiality', and appatigha 'not reacting', which is an Abhidhammic classification of materiality, occurring in Dhs. 659, 1050. sappatigha are called the physical sense-organs as reacting or responding to sense stimuli; and also the physical sense-objects as impinging or making an impact on the sense-organs. All other materiality is appatigha non-reacting and non-impinging. These 2 terms have been variously rendered as resistant and not, responding and not, with and without impact.

Pātihāriya: 'miracle', marvel. Three marvels are ascribed to the Buddha: the marvel of magic iddhi-p the marvel of mind-reading ādesanā-p and the marvel of instruction anusāsanī-p In D. 11, the Buddha says that he sees danger in the first two and therefore abhors them. In A. III, 61, the 'marvel of instruction' is called the one 'more noble and sublime'. For iddhi-pātihāriya, see D. 25. See also yamakapātihāriya.

Patikkūla-saññā: s. kāyagatā-sati

Pātimokkha: 'Disciplinary Code', is the name of the code of monk's rules, which on all full-moon and new moon days is recited before the assembled community of fully ordained Bhikkhus Bhikkhu.

See The Patimokkha, Romanized Pāli text and transl. by ñānamoli Thera Bangkok 1966, Mahāmakut Buddhist Bookshop.

Pātimokkha-samvara-sīla: 'morality consisting in restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code' pātimokkha see: prec.. For details, see: sīla.

Patinissaggānupassanā: 'contemplation on relinquishment', is one of the 18 kinds of insight vipassanā. Further cf. the 16th exercise of anapana-sati.

Patipadā: 1. 'Road', 'Path'; for instance in dukkhanirodha-gāminī-patipadā 'the road leading to the ceasing of suffering' = 4th Noble Truth; majjhima-patipadā 'the Middle Way'.

2. 'Progress' see also the foll. article. There are 4 modes of progress to deliverance: 1 painful progress with slow comprehension dukkhā patipadā dandhābhiññā 2 painful progress with quick comprehension, 3 pleasant progress with slow comprehension, 4 pleasant progress with quick comprehension. In A. IV, 162 it is said:

1: Some person possesses by nature excessive greed, excessive hate, excessive confusion, and thereby he often feels pain and sorrow; and also the 5 mental abilities, as faith, energy, awareness or mindfulness, concentration and understanding see: indriya 15-19 are dull in him; and by reason thereof he reaches only slowly the immediacy ānantariya q.v to the cessation of all fermentations.

2: Some person possesses by nature excessive greed, etc., but the 5 mental abilities are sharp in him and by reason thereof he reaches quickly the immediacy to the cessation of all fermentations.

3;Some person possesses by nature no excessive greed, etc., but the 5 mental abilities are dull in him, and by reason thereof he reaches slowly the immediacy to the cessation of all fermentations.

4 'Some person possessess by nature no excessive greed, etc., and the mental abilities are sharp in him, and by reason thereof he reaches quickly the immediacy to the cessation of all fermentations.

See A. IV, 162, 163, 166-169; Dhs. 176ff; Atthasālini Tr. I, 243; 11, 291, 317.

Patipadā-ñānadassana-visuddhi: 'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress' forms the 6th stage of purification visuddhi.

Patipannaka: 'Path-attainer', is he who had reached one of the 4 supra-mundane paths of Nobility see: ariya-puggala - App.

Patipatti: practice, or 'pursuance' of the teaching, as distinguished from the mere theoretical knowledge of its wording pariyatti.

Patipassaddhi-pahāna: 'overcoming of defilements by tranquillization' see: pahāna.

Patisambhidā: 'analytical knowledge' or 'discrimination', is of 4 kinds: analytical knowledge of the true meaning attha-patisambhidā of the law dhamma-patisambhidā, of language nirutti-patisambhidā of ready wit patibhāna-patisambhidā.

As an alternative rendering of the fourth term patibhāna Bhikkhu ñānamoli proposes: perspicuity in expression and knowledge.

1. The analytical knowledge of the meaning attha-p is the knowledge with regard to the sense.

2. The analytical knowledge of the law dhamma-p is the knowledge with regard to the law.

3. The analytical knowledge of language nirutti-p is the knowledge of the language with regard to those former 2 things.

4. The analytical knowledge of ready-wit patibhāna-p is the knowledge about the former 3 kinds of knowledge; Vibh. XV.

1 attha Sanskrit artha, to reach; result, meaning, purpose, essence: designates, in short, the fruit phala of a cause hetu for since the fruit of a cause results from adhering to the cause, and is reached and effected thereby, therefore it is called result attha In particular, however, 5 things are considered as attha namely: everything dependent on conditions, Nibbāna, the meaning of words, kamma-result, and functional consciousness. When anyone reflects on that meaning any knowledge of his, falling within the category concerned with meaning or result, is the 'analytical knowledge' of meaning.

2 dhamma Sanskrit dharma Ö dhar to bear; bearer, condition, law, phenomenon, thing is, in short, a name for condition paccaya... In particular, however, 5 things are considered as dhamma namely: every cause hetu producing a result, the noble path, the spoken word, the kammically advantageous, the kammically disadvantageous. When anyone reflects on that law, any knowledge of his, falling within the category concerned with law or cause, is the 'analytical knowledge' of the law.

In Vibh. it is further said: 'The knowledge of suffering is the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning attha-patisambhidā the knowledge of its origin is the 'analytical knowledge' of the law dhamma-patisambhidā The knowledge of the cause is the 'analytical knowledge' of the law dhamma-patisambhidā the knowledge of the result of the cause is the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning attha-patisambhidā.. That the Bhikkhu knows the law, the sunas etc. this is called the 'analytical knowledge' of the law dhamma-patisambhidā if however, he understands the meaning of this or that speech... it is called the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning attha-patisambhidā.'

3'The knowledge of the language concerning those things' means: the language corresponding to reality, and the unfailing mode of expression concerning the true meaning and the law.

4'Knowledge about the kinds of knowledges' is that knowledge which has all knowledges as object and considers them. Or, the analytical knowledge of ready wit patibhāna-patisambhidā means the knowledge of the above mentioned 3 kinds of knowledge, in all their details, with their objects, functions, etc.; Vis.M XIV.

On the 7 qualities leading to the attainment of the 4 'analytical knowledge', see: A. VII, 37 - See Vis.M XIV, 21ff; Vibh. XV; Pts.M. Patisambhidā Kathā.

Patisandhi: lit. 'reunion, relinking', i.e. rebirth, is one of the 14 functions of consciousness viññāna-kicca. It is a kamma-resultant type of consciousness and arises at the moment of conception i.e. with the forming of new life in the mother's womb. Immediately afterwards it sinks into the subconscious stream of existence bhavanga-sota, and conditioned thereby ever and ever again corresponding states of subconsciousness arise. Thus it is really rebirth-consciousness that determines the latent character of a person.

Neither has this rebirth-consciousness transmigrated from the previous existence to this present existence, nor did it arise without such conditions, as kamma, kammic-constructions, propensity, object, etc. That this consciousness has not come from the previous existence to this present existence, yet that it has come into existence by means of conditions included in the previous existence, such as kamma, etc., this fact may be illustrated by various things, such as the echo, the light of a lamp, the contact of a seal, or the image produced by a mirror. For just as the resounding of the echo is conditioned by a sound, etc., and nowhere a transmigration of sound has taken place, just so it is with this consciousness. Further it is said: 'In this continuous process, no sameness and no otherness can be found.' For if there were full identity between the different stages, then also milk never could turn into curd. And if there were a complete otherness, then curd could never come from milk. If in a continuity of existence any kamma-result takes place, then this kamma-result neither belongs to any other being, nor does it come from any other kamma, because absolute sameness and otherness are excluded here; Vis, XVII 164ff.

In Mil. it is said:

Now, Venerable Nāgasena, the one who is reborn, is he the same as the one who has died, or is he another?

Neither the same, nor another; na ca so na ca añño.

Give me an example.

What do you think, o King: are you now, as a grown-up person, the same that you had been as a little, young and tender babe?

No, Venerable Sir. Another person was the little, young and tender babe, but quite a different person am I now as a grown-up man.;...

... Is perhaps in the first watch of the night one lamp burning, another one in the middle watch, and again another one in the last watch?

No, Venerable Sir. The light during the whole night depends on one and the same lamp.''

Just so, o King, is the chain of phenomena linked together. One phenomenon arises, another vanishes, yet all are linked together, one after the other, without interruption. In this way one reaches the final state of consciousnes neither as the same person. nor as another person.''

According to the nature of their rebirth consciousness, beings divide into the following 3 groups:

1. ahetu-patisandhika a 'being reborn without rootconditions', is a being whose consciousness at the moment of rebirth was not accompanied by any of the 3 noble rootconditions, viz. greedlessness, hatelessness, unconfusedness see: mūla i.e. selflessness, kindness, intelligence. Such beings are found in the 4 lower worlds apāya,, in which case the function of rebirth is exercised by the class of consciousness listed in Tab. I as No. 56. But if such beings are born in the sense-sphere as humans, they will be crippled, blind, deaf, mentally deficient, etc. Rebirth-consciousness = Tab. I, No. 41

2. dvihetu or duhetu-patisandhika a 'being reborn with only 2 noble root-conditions', i.e. greedlessness and hatelessness. Rebirth-consciousness = Tab. I, Nos. 44, 45, 48 or 49.

3. tihetu-patisandhika a 'being reborn with 3 noble rootconditions'. Such a being can be found only among men. Rebirth-consciousness = Tab. 1, Nos. 42, 43, 46, or 47 and higher divine beings.

On these 3 types of rebirth, See Atthasālini Tr. 11, 354 - 379. App.: patisandhika

In the suttas, the terms for rebirth are chiefly punabbhava, 'renewed existence', and abhinibbatti 'arising'; or both combined as punabbhavābhinibbatti - App.: patisandhi.

Literature Vis.M XVII, 133f, 164f, 189f, 289f; Vis.M XIX, 22f. - Kamma and Rebirth, by Nyanatiloka Thera WHEEL 9. - The Case for Rebirth, by Francis Story WHEEL 12/13. - Survival and Kamma in Buddhist Perspective, by K. N. Jayatilleke WHEEL 141/143. - Rebirth Explained, by V. F. Gunaratna WHEEL 167/169.

Patisankhāna-bala: and Bhāvanā-bala: 'power of reflection', and 'power of mental development'. About these 2 powers it is said in A. II, 10:

What, o Bhikkhus, is the power of reflection? If, o Bhikkhus, someone thinks thus: 'Bad conduct in deeds, words and thoughts verily bears bad fruits both in this life, as well as in the next life', and in consequence of this consideration, he abandons bad conduct in deeds, words and thoughts, follows good conduct, and keeps his mind pure, this, o Bhikkhus, is the power of reflection.

What, o Bhikkhus, is the power of mental development? If, o Bhikkhus, a Bhikkhu develops the factors of enlightenment bojjhanga, bent on solitude, on detachment, on ceasing, and ending in deliverance, namely: awareness or mindfulness, investigating of the law, energy, rapture, tranquillity, concentration, and equanimity, this, o Bhikkhus, is the power of mental development.

Patisankhānupassanā-ñāna: 'knowledge consisting in reflective contemplation;; is one of the 9 knowledges constituting the 'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress' patipadā-ñānadassanavisuddhi see: visuddhi VI, and one of the 18 chief kinds of insight mahāvipassanā see: vipassanā.

Pativedha: 'penetration', signifies the realization of the truth of the Dhamma, as distinguished from the mere acquisition of its wording pariyatti or the practice patipatti of it, in other words, realization as distinguished from theory and practice. Cf. pariyatti

Patta-pindik'anga: the 'exercise of the bowl-eater', is one of the 13 ascetic purification-exercises dhutānga, consisting in the vow of using only the food-bowl for eating, and the rejection of any other vessel.

Patti-dāna: lit. 'giving of the acquired', i.e. 'transference of merit.' Though in the older texts very seldom mentioned e.g. A VII, 50, it is, however, a widespread custom in all Buddhist countries. It is presumed that moral merit, especially that acquired through giving food, can be transferred to others, apparently for the reason that one's own good actions may become to others, especially to departed relatives and friends reborn in the ghost realm, an inducement to a happy and morally advantageous state of mind. Transference of merit is advocated though without mentioning the term patti-dāna in the Tirokudda Sutta Khp. and Petavatthu and its Com. Khp. Tr.. It is one of the ten 'bases of meritorious action' puññakiriyavatthu, called there pattānuppadāna App..

See 'The Doctrine of Reversible Merit by F. L. Woodward. Buddhist Review London, Vol. I 1914, p. 38.

Penetration: s. pativedha pariyatti- For the power of penetrating vipphāra knowledge and concentration, see: iddhi- For morality combined with penetration nibbedha see: hāna-bhāgiya-sīla etc. - For penetration pariya of the mind of others, see: abhiññā.

Perfections: the 10: pāramī

Perfect one: the: tathāgata

Performance: and avoidance: cāritta-vāritta

Permanency: idea of: see: vipallāsa

Personality: s. sakkāya For personality-belief, see: sakkāya ditthi, ditthi, attā, satta, puggala, vipallāsa.

Perversions: the 4: vipallāsa

Peta: Sanskrit preta lit. 'departed spirit', ghost; see: loka

Petti-visaya: 'ghost realm'; see: loka.

Phala: lit. 'fruit'. - 1. result, effect often together with hetu cause; 2. benefit e.g. in Sāmañña-phala Sutta, 'The Results, or Benefits, of Recluseship'; D. 2.

As 'path-result', or 'fruition', it donotes those moments of supra-mundane consciousness which flash forth immediately after the moment of path-consciousness see: ariya-puggala and which, till the attainment of the next higher path, may during the practice of insight vipassanā still recur innumerable times. If thus repeated, they are called the 'attainment of fruition phalasamāpatti which is explained in detail in Vis.M XXIII.

Phassa: fr. phusati to touch: 'sense-contact', contact. The term samphassa is used in compounds, e.g. in the following: ';T'here are 6 classes of sense-contact: visual contact cakkhu-samphassa contacts of hearing, smelling, tasting, bodily tactile contact and mental contact; M. 9. A twofold division occurs in D. 15: patigha samphassa contact by sensorial reaction', and adhivacana-samphassa verbal or conceptual, i.e. mental contact'.

phassa does not signify physical impact, but is one of the 7 constant mental properties of consciousness cetasika and belongs to the group of mental constructions sankhāra-khandha In lists of both these categories it is generally mentioned first e.g. Dhs. 1: M. 9, due to its fundamental position in the cognitive process In M. 18 it is thus defined:;Dependent on the eye and the forms, visual-consciousness arises; the coming-together of the three is sense-contact; similarly stated in the case of the other 5 senses, including mind. In the dependent origination, it is conditioned by the six sense-sources and is a conditioning factor of feeling see: paticca-samuppāda, 6. Its relation to mind-and-body nāma-rūpa is described in D. 15, and its influence on feeling and wrong views, in D. 1 at the end. - It is one of the 4 nutriments āhāra, and the first factor in the pentad of sense-contact phassa-pañcamaka together with feeling, perception, intention and consciousness see Abh. St., p. 47ff.

Being a key function in the mind's contact with the world of objects and being a potential source of defilements, sense-contact is an important subject for reflective insight contemplation as succinctly formulated in many verses of the Sn.: 736/7, 778, 851, 870/72, 923.

Picked-up rags: wearing robes made from: see: dhutānga.

Pindapātik'anga: The 'practice of going for food', is one of the 13 ascetic purification-exercises see: dhutānga

Pīta-kasina: 'yellow-kasina is one of the kasina-exercises; see: kasina

Pīti: rapture, enthusiasm rendered also by joy, happiness; interest it is one of the mental properties or properties cetasika and belongs to the group of mental constructions sankhāra-khandha As, in sutta texts, it is often linked in a compound word. with 'gladness' pāmojja or 'happiness' sukha some Western translations have wrongly taken it as a synonym of these two terms. Pīti, however, is not a feeling or a sensation, and hence does not belong to the feeling-group vedanā-khandha, but may be described psychologically as 'joyful interest'. As such it may be associated with advantageous as well as with disadvantageous and neutral states of consciousness.

A high degree of rapture is characteristic of certain stages in meditative concentration, in insight practice vipassanā as well as in the first two absorptions jhāna. In the latter it appears as one of the factors of absorption jhānanga see: jhāna and is strongest in the 2nd absorption. Five degrees of intensity in meditative rapture are described in Vis.M IV. 94ff. It is one of the factors of enlightenment bojjhanga.

Planes of existence: the 3: see: avacara.

Pleasantness: idea of: see: vipallāsa, subhanimitta.

Pondering: s. vīmamsā.

Post-nascence: pacchājāta-paccaya one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Postures: the 4 bodily: iriyāpatha

Powers: the 5 spiritual: see: bala- For the 6 higher p., see: abhiññna For the 10 p. of a Buddha, see: dasabala- For the 4 roads to p., see: iddhipāda. For magical p., see: iddhi

Practice: For theory, practice and realization, see: pariyatti.

Predominance: and pre-nascence: adhipati, purejāta, are 2 of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Preparatory concentration: and preparatory image, etc.: see: samādhi javana

Prescribed moral rules: paññatti-sīla

Latent tendencies: s. anusaya

Produced materiality: nipphanna-rūpa

Productive: or regenerative kamma: s. kamma.

Proficiency: of mental properties and consciousness: pāguññatā

Progress: s. patipadā, abhabbagamana - p. in morality, etc., see: hānabhāgiya etc. - Purification by knowledge and vision of path-progress, see: visuddhi VI. - p. : of the disciple, see: foll.

Progress of the disciple: Gradual development of the 8-fold path in the: In many suttas occurs an identical passage that outlines the gradual course of development in the progress of the disciple. There it is shown how this development takes place gradually, and in conformity with laws, from the very first hearing of the doctrine, and from germinating faith and dim comprehension, up to the final realization of deliverance.

After hearing the law, he is filled with confidence, and he thinks: 'Full of hindrances is household life, a refuse heap; but the homeless life of a Bhikkhu is like the open air. Not easy is it, when one lives at home, to fulfill in all points the rules of the Noble life. How if now I were to cut off hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go forth from home to the homeless life?' And after a short time, having given up his possessions, great or little, having forsaken a circle of relations, small or large, he cuts off hair and beard, puts on the yellow robe, and goes forth from home to the homeless life.

Having thus left the world, he fulfills the rules of the Bhikkhus. He avoids the killing of living beings and abstains from it; without stick or sword, conscientious, full of sympathy, he is desirous of the welfare of all living beings. He avoids stealing... avoids unchastity... avoids lying... tale-bearing... harsh language... vain talk.

He abstains from destroying vegetal germs and plants; eats only at one time of the day; keeps aloof from dance, song, music and the visiting of shows; rejects floral adornment, perfumes, ointment, as well as any other kind of adornment and embellishment. High and gorgeous beds he does not use. Gold and silver he does not accept... keeps aloof from buying and selling things.

He contents himself with the robe that protects his body, and with the food-bowl with which he keeps himself alive. Wherever he goes, he is provided with these two things, just as a winged bird in flying carries its wings along with him.

By fulfilling this noble domain of morality sīla he feels in his heart an irreproachable happiness.

In what follows thereafter it is shown how the disciple watches over his 5 senses and his mind, and by this noble restraint of the senses indriya-samvara feels in his heart an unblemished happiness; how in all his actions he is ever mindful and clearly conscious; and how, being equipped with this lofty morality sīla and with this noble restraint of the senses indriya-samvara and with awareness or mindfulness and clear consciousness sati-sampajañña he choses a secluded dwelling, and freeing his mind from the 5 hindrances nīvarana he reaches full concentration samādhi,, and how thereafter, by developing insight vipassanā with regard to the impermanency anicca misery dukkha and impersonality anattā, of all phenomena of existence, he finally realizes deliverance from all fermentations and defilements, and thus the assurance arises in him:

For ever am I liberated,
This is the last time I am born,
No new existence waits for me.

Cf. D.1, 2f; M. 27, 38, 51, 60, 76; A. IV, 198; X, 99: Pug. 239, etc.

Proximity: anantara is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Pubbenivāsānussati: 'remembrance of former births', is one of the higher powers abhiññā, and a factor of threefold knowledge tevijja.

Puggala: 'individual', 'person', as well as the synonyms: personality, individuality, being satta self attā etc., in short all terms designating a personal entity, hence also: I, you, he, man, god, etc., all these, according to Buddhism, are mere names for certain combinations of material and mental processes, and apart from them they have no real existence. They are to be considered as mere 'conventional modes of expression' vohāra-vacana and on that level they may be used, and are so used in the sutta texts, if taken;without misapprehending them; see: quote from D. 9 under paramattha With such tacit reservations, the term puggala occurs quite frequently in the suttas.

In the ultimate sense paramattha, however, there exist only ever-changing physical and mental phenomena, flashing up and dying every moment. - Kath., in its first section, discusses the question whether;in the absolute sense, any personality puggala can be found; see: Guide, pp. 62ff. - See paramattha, anattā.

Pūjā: 1 honour, respect, homage, 2 worship, devotional observances, devotional offerings; also offerings to Bhikkhus.

1: The Mahā-mangala Sutta Sn. 259 says that;Honour and respect towards those worthy of it, is conducive to great blessing; pūjā ca pūjaniyesu etam mangalam uttamarn See Dhp. 195f.

2: The Buddha did not think much of mere outer worship.;Not thus, Ananda, is the Tathāgata respected, venerated, esteemed, worshipped and honoured in the highest degree. But, Ananda, whatsoever Bhikkhu or Bhikkhuni, lay man or lay woman, abides by the Teaching, lives uprightly in the Teaching, walks in the way of the Teaching, it is by him that the Tathāgata is respected, venerated, esteemed, worshipped and honoured in the highest degree; D. 16. -;There are two kinds of worship: in a material way āmisa-pūjā and through practice of the Dhamma dhamma-pūjā The worship through practice of the Dhamma is the better of the two; A. II.

Punabbhava: lit.: re-becoming; 'renewed existence', is a sutta term for 'rebirth', which, in later literature mostly is called patisandhi The attainment of Sainthood arahatta implying the end of future rebirths, is often expressed in the words:;This is the last birth. Now there is no more a renewed existence!; natthi dāni punabbhavo M. 26; D. 15; Therag. 87, 339; Sn. 502. - The term is often linked with abhinibbatti 'arising'.

But how, o brother, does it come to renewed existence and arising in the future āyatim punabbhavābhinibbatti? Because beings, obstructed by ignorance and fettered by craving, find ever fresh delight now here, now there, for this reason there is renewed existence and arising in the future; M. 43. See also S.XII. 38. abhinibbatti also stands sometimes alone in signifying 'rebirth', e.g. in A. VI, 61; X, 65.

Cf., in the 2nd Truth, the adj. ponobhavika 'leading to renewed existence'.

See A. III, 76; Sn. 163, 273, 514, 733; S. VII, 12; X, 3.

Puñña: merit, meritorious, is a popular term for kammically advantageous kusala action. Opposite terms: apuñña= demerit. pāpa= 'bad', 'evil'. The value of meritorious action is often stressed, e.g., in the Treasure Store Sutta see: Khp. Tr., Dhp 18, 118, 122. - The Community of Noble Bhikkhus ariya-sangha the third Refuge see: ti-sarana is said to be;the incomparable field of merit in the world; anuttaram, puññakkhettam see: anussati 3. The Arahats, however, having transcended all life-affirming and rebirth-producing actions, are said to be;beyond merit and demerit;; see Sn. 520, 547, 636, 790. - See foll. 3 articles.

Puññābhisankhāra: 'meritorious kammic-constructions' of the sense-and fine-material sphere; see: sankhāra I. 1.

Puññā-dhārā: 'streams of merit'. It is said that one produces 4 streams of merit by offering the 4 requisites robes, foodfood, dwelling, medicine to a Bhikkhu who has reached the conditionless deliverance of mind; further by being filled with unshakable faith in the Buddha, his doctrine and community of disciples, and by being perfect in morality A. IV, 51, 52. A. VIII, 39 describes 4 further streams of merit.

Puñña-kiriya-vatthu: 'bases of meritorious action'. In the suttas, 3 are mentioned consisting of giving generosity; dāna-maya-p of morality sīla-maya-p and of mental development meditation; bhāvanā-maya-p. See D. 33; It. 60; expl. in A. VIII, 36.

Commentaries have a list of ten dasa p which is very popular in Buddhist countries: 1-3 as above, 4 reverence apaciti5 service veyyāvacca 6 transference of merit pattānuppadāna 7 rejoicing in others' merit abbhānumodana 8 expounding the Doctrine desanā 9 listening to the Doctrine savana 10 straightening one's right views rectification of views; ditthujukamma - Expl. in Atthasālini Tr. 209ff.

See 'The Advantages of Merit', by Bhikkhu Khantipalo BODHI LEAVES B. 38.

Pure abodes: suddhāvāsa

Purejāta-paccaya: 'pre-nascence', is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Purification: the 7 stages of; see: visuddhi.

Purisindriya: 'Virility'; see: bhāva khandha

Purity: the elements of the effort for: pārisuddhipadhāniyanga

Puthujjana: lit.: 'one of the many folk', 'worldling', ordinary man, is any layman or Bhikkhu who is still possessed of all the 10 mental chains samyojana binding to the round of rebirths, and therefore has not yet reached any of the 4 stages of Nobility see: ariya-puggala.

Whoso is neither freed from the 3 mental chains personality-belief, sceptical doubt, attachment to mere rule and ritual, nor is on the way to lose these 3 things, such a one is called a worlding; Pug. 9.

According to Com. to M. 9, a 'worlding' may be 1 an outsider a non-Buddhist who, if he believed in moral causation, may be said to have right view to that extent; but he has not the 'knowledge conforming to the Truths' saccānulomika-ñāna as has 2 the 'worldling inside the Buddha's Dispensation' sāsanika A worlding who professes Buddhism, may be either a 'blind worldling' andha-p who has neither knowledge of, nor interest in the fundamental teaching the Truths, groups, etc.; or he is a 'noble worldling' kalyāna-p who has such knowledge and earnestly strives to understand and practise the Teaching. - See Atthasālini Tr. II, 451 tr. by 'average man'; Com. to M. 1, D. 1.

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