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Sabba-loke anabhirati-saññā: 'contemplation on disinterestedness regarding the whole world', described in A. X., 60 in the following words:;If, Ananda, the Bhikkhu gives up his tenacious clinging to the world, his firm grasping and his biases and inclinations of the mind, and turns away from these things, does not cling to them, this, Ananda, is called the contemplation on disinterestedness regarding the whole world

Sabbūpadhi-patinissagga: s. upadhi

Sacca: 'Truth'. - 1. On the 'two truths', conventional and ultimate, see paramattha

2. 'The Four Noble Truths' ariya-sacca are the briefest synthesis of the entire teachings of Buddhism, since all those many doctrines of the threefold canon are, without any exception, included therein. They are: the truth of suffering, of the origin of suffering, of the ceasing of suffering, and of the 8-fold path leading to the ceasing of suffering.

I. The 1st truth, briefly stated, teaches that all forms of existence whatsoever are unsatisfactory and subject to suffering dukkha.

II. The 2nd truth teaches that all suffering, and all rebirth, is produced by craving tanhā.

III. The 3rd truth teaches that ceasing of craving necessarily results in ceasing nirodha of rebirth and suffering, i.e. nibbāna

IV. The 4th truth of the 8-fold path magga indicates the means by which this ceasing is attained.

The stereotype text frequently recurring in the Sutta Pitaka, runs as follows:

I. But what, o Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of suffering? Birth is suffering, decay is suffering, death is suffering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair are suffering; in short, the 5 groups of existence connected with clinging are suffering cf. dukkha, dukkhata.

II. But what, o Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering? It is that craving which gives rise to fresh rebirth and, bound up with lust and greed, now here, now there, finds ever fresh delight. It is the sensual craving kāma-tanhā the craving for existence bhava-tanhā the craving for non-existence or self-annihilation vibhava-tanhā.

III. But what, o Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the ceasing of suffering? It is the complete fading away and ceasing of this craving, its forsaking and giving up, liberation and detachment from it.

IV. But what, o Bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the path leading to the ceasing of suffering? It is the Noble 8-fold path ariya-atthangika-magga that leads to the ceasing of suffering, namely:

1. Right view sammā-ditthi

2. right motivation sammā-sankappa

III. Wisdom paññā
3. Right speech sammā-vācā

4. Right action sammā-kammanta

5. Right livelihood samma-ājiva

I. Morality sīla
6. Right effort sammā-vāyāma

7. Right awareness or mindfulness sammā-sati

8. Right concentration sammā-samādhi

II. Concentration samādhi

1: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right view or right understanding? It is the understanding of suffering, of the origin of suffering, of the ceasing of suffering, and of the path leading to the ceasing of suffering.

2: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right thought? It is a mind free from sensual lust, ill-will and cruelty.

3: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right speech? Abstaining from lying, tale-bearing, harsh words, and foolish babble cf.tiracchānakathā.

4: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right action? Abstaining from injuring living beings, from stealing and from unlawful sexual intercourse see: kāmesu micchācāra

5: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right livelihood? If the Noble Disciple rejects a wrong living, and gains his living by means of right livelihood see: magga 5.

6: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right effort? If the disciple rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, disadvantageous things that have not yet arisen;... if he rouses his will to overcome the evil, disadvantageous things that have already arisen;... if he rouses his will to produce meritorious things that have not yet arisen;... if he rouses his will to maintain the meritorious things that have already arisen and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development; he thus makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives see: padhāna.

7: What now, o Bhikkhus is right awareness or mindfulness? If the disciple dwells in contemplation of materiality... of feeling... of mind... of the mental-objects, ardent, clearly conscious, and mindful after putting away worldly greed and grief see: satipatthāna.

8: What now, o Bhikkhus, is right concentration? If the disciple is detached from sensual objects, detached from disadvantageous things, and enters into the first absorption... the second absorption... the third absorption... the fourth absorption; see: jhāna.

In the Buddha's first sermon, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, it is said that the first truth suffering is to be fully understood; the second truth craving to be abandoned; the third truth Nibbāna to be realized; the fourth truth the path to be cultivated.

The truth of suffering is to be compared with a disease, the truth of the origin of suffering with the cause of the disease, the truth of ceasing of suffering with the cure of the disease, the truth of the path with the medicine; Vis.M XVI.

In the ultimate sense, all these 4 truths are to be considered as empty of a self, since there is no feeling agent, no doer, no liberated one. no one who follows along the path. Therefore it is said:

'Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found.
The deed is, but no doer of the deed is there.
Nibbāna is, but not the man that enters it.
The path is, but no traveller on it is seen.

'The first truth and the second truth are empty
Of permanency, joy, of self and beauty;
The Deathless Realm is empty of an ego,
And free from permanency, joy and self, the path.' Vis.M XVI

It must be pointed out that the first truth does not merely refer to actual suffering, i.e. to suffering as feeling, but that it shows that, in consequence of the universal law of impermanency, all the phenomena of existence whatsoever, even the most sublime states of existence, are subject to change and dissolution, and hence are miserable and unsatisfactory; and that thus, without exception, they all contain in themselves the germ of suffering. Cf. Guide, p. 101f.

Regarding the true nature of the path, see: magga.

Literature: Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta in WHEEL 17 and BODHI LEAVES; M. 141; Sacca-Samyutta S. LVI; Sacca Vibhanga; W. of B.; Vis.M XVI: The Four Noble Truths by Francis Story WHEEL 34/35; The Significance of the 4 Noble Truths by V. F. Gunaratna WHEEL 123.

Sacca-ñāna: 'knowledge of the truth' see: prec., may be of 2 kinds: 1 knowledge consisting in understanding anubodha-ñāna and 2 knowledge consisting in penetration pativedha-ñāna i.e. realization. Cf. pariyatti

Amongst these, 1 'knowledge consisting in understanding' is mundane lokiya, and its arising with regard to the ceasing of suffering, and to the path, is due to hearsay etc. therefore not due to one's realization of the supra-mundane path; see: ariya-puggala 2 'Knowledge consisting in penetration', however, is supra-mundane lokuttara with the ceasing of suffering = nibbāna as object, it penetrates with its functions the 4 truths in one and the same moment, as it is said S. LVI, 30: whosoever, o Bhikkhus, understands suffering, he also understands the origin of suffering, the ceasing of suffering, and the path leading to the ceasing of suffering'; Vis.M XVI, 84. See visuddhi end of article.

Of the mundane kinds of knowledge, however, the knowledge of suffering by which various prejudices are overcome, dispels the personality-belief sakkāya-ditthi s. ditthi The knowledge of the origin of suffering dispels the annihilation-view uccheda-ditthi, see: ditthi the knowledge of ceasing of suffering, the eternity-view sassata-ditthi ditthi the knowledge of the path, the view of inefficacy of action akiriya-ditthi see: ditthi Vis.M XVI, 85.

Saccānulomika-ñāna: anuloma-ñāna, puthujjana.

Sacchikaranīyā dhammā: 'things to be realized'. Recollection of former states of existence is to be realized through remembrance abhiññā,. The vanishing and reappearing of beings is to be realized through the divine eye abhiññā,. The 8 deliverances vimokkha are to be realized through the mental group kāya here feeling, perception, mental constructions; see: kāya The ceasing of fermentations is to be realized through insight vipassanā.

Saddhā: faith, confidence. A Buddhist is said to have faith if;he believes in the Perfect One's the Buddha's Enlightenment; M 53; A.V, 2, or in the Three Jewels see: ti-ratana by taking his refuge in them see: ti-sarana His faith, however, should be;reasoned and rooted in understanding; ākāravatā saddhā dassanamūlika a href=http://www.what-buddha-said.net/library/buddhist-dictionary/dic2-abbrev.html#m. M. 47, and he is asked to investigate and test the object of his faith M. 47, 95. A Buddhist's faith is not in conflict with the spirit of inquiry, and;doubt about dubitable things; A. II, 65; S. XLII, 13 is admitted and inquiry into them is encouraged. The 'ability of faith' saddhindriya should be balanced with that of understanding paññindriya see: indriya-samatta It is said:;A Bhikkhu who has understanding, establishes his faith in accordance with that understanding; S. XLVIII, 45. Through understanding and understanding, faith becomes an inner certainty and firm conviction based on one's own experience.

Faith is called the seed Sn. v. 77 of all advantageous states because, according to commentarial explanations, it inspires the mind with confidence okappana pasāda and determination adhimokkha for 'launching out' pakhandhana see: M. 122 to cross the flood of samsāra

Unshakable faith is attained on reaching the first stage of Nobility, 'stream-entry' sotāpatti, see: ariya-puggala when the fetter of sceptical doubt vicikicchā see: samyojana is eliminated. Unshakable confidence avecca-pasāda in the Three Jewels is one of the characteristic qualities of the Stream-winner sotāpannassa angāni.

Faith is a mental concomitant, present in all kammically advantageous, and its corresponding neutral, consciousness see: Tab. II.. It is one of the 4 streams of merit puññadhārā,, one of the 5 spiritual abilities indriya, spiritual powers bala,, elements of exertion padhāniyanga and one of the 7 treasures dhana,.

See Faith in the Buddha's Teaching, by Soma Thera WHEEL 262.,Does Saddhā mean Faith?'' by ñānamoli Thera in WHEEL 52/53.

Saddhānusāri: and Saddhā-vimutta: the 'faith-devoted and the 'faith-liberated', are two of the 7 kinds of Noble Disciples see: ariya-puggala B..

Sagga: 'heaven'; see: deva divine beings.

Sahajāta-paccaya: 'co-nascence', is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Sahetuka-citta: s. hetu

Sakadāgāmī: the 'Once-returner': see: ariya-puggala A.

Sakka: the 'King of Gods' devānam-inda is the lord over the celestial beings in the heaven of the Thirty-Three' tāvatimsa see: deva.

Sakkāya: 'existing group'. 'this word is usually translated by 'personality', but according to the commentaries it corresponds to sat-kāya 'existing group', hence not to Sanskrit sva-kāya 'own group' or 'own body'. In the suttas e.g. M. 44 it is said to be a name for the 5 groups of existence khandha : Sakkāya, o Brother Visākha, is said by the Blessed One to be a name for the 5 groups as objects of clinging upādāna-khandha to wit: materiality, feeling, perception, mental constructions, and consciousness.; - See foll.

Sakkāya-ditthi: 'personality-belief', is the first of the 10 mental chains samyojana It is entirely abandoned only on reaching the path of Stream-winning sotāpatti-magga ariya-puggala There are 20 kinds of personality-belief, which are obtained by applying 4 types of that belief to each of the 5 groups of existence khandha : 1-5 the belief to be identical with materiality, feeling, perception, mental constructions or consciousness; 6-10 to be contained in them; 11-15 to be independent of them; 16-20 to be the owner of them M. 44; S. XXII. 1. See prec., ditthi upādāna 4.

Salāyatana: the '6 bases' of mental activity; see: āyatana, paticcasamuppāda.

Samādhi: 'concentration'; lit. 'the mental state of being firmly fixed' sam+ā+Ö hā is the fixing of the mind on a single object.,One-pointedness of mind cittass ekaggatā Brother Visakha, this is called concentration; M. 44. Concentration - though often very weak - is one of the 7 mental properties inseparably associated with all consciousness. Cf.nāma, cetanā.

Right concentration sammā-samādhi as the last link of the 8-fold path see: magga is defined as the 4 meditative absorptions jhāna. In a wider sense, comprising also much weaker states of concentration, it is associated with all kammically advantageous kusala consciousness. Wrong concentration micchā-samādhi is concentration associated with all kammically disadvantageous akusala consciousness. Wherever in the texts this term is not differentiated by 'right' or 'wrong', there 'right' concentration is meant.

In concentration one distinguishes 3 grades of intensity:

1 'Preparatory concentration' parikamma-samādhi existing at the beginning of the mental exercise.

2 'Neighbourhood concentration' upacāra-samādhi i.e. concentration 'approaching' but not yet attaining the 1st absorption jhāna, which in certain mental exercises is marked by the appearance of the so-called 'counter-image' patibhāga-nimitta.

3 'Attainment concentration' appanā-samādhi i.e. that concentration which is present during the absorptions. App.

Further details, see: bhāvana, Vis.M III and Fund. IV.

Concentration connected with the 4 noble path-moments magga and fruition-moments phala is called supra-mundane lokuttara having Nibbāna as object. Any other concentration, even that of the most sublime absorptions is merely mundane lokiya.

According to D. 33, the development of concentration samādhi-bhāvanā may procure a 4-fold blessing: 1 present happiness through the 4 absorptions; 2 knowledge and vision ñāna-dassana - here probably identical with the 'divine eye' see: abhiññā through perception of light kasina 3 awareness or mindfulness and clear comprehension through the clear knowledge of the arising, persisting and vanishing of feelings, perceptions and thoughts; 4 ceasing of all fermentations āsavakkhaya through understanding the arising and passing away of the 5 groups forming the objects of clinging see: khandha

Concentration is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment bojjhanga, one of the 5 spiritual abilities and powers see: bala and the last link of the 8-fold path. In the 3-fold division of the 8-fold path morality, concentration and understanding, it is a collective name for the three last links of the path see: sikkhā.

Samādhi-parikkhāra: 'means, or requisites of concentration', are the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness satipatthāna. See M. 44.

Samādhi-samāpatti-kusalatā: thiti-kusalatā-utthānakusalatā skilfulness in entering into concentration, in remaining in it, and in rising from it. Cf. S.XXXIV, llff.

Samādhi-sambojjhanga: 'concentration as link to Awakening' see: bojjhanga

Samādhi-vipphārā iddhi: the 'power of penetrating concentration', is one of the magical abilities iddhi.

Samanantara-paccaya: 'contiguity', is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Sāmañña-phala: the 'fruits of monkhood', is the name of a famous sutta D. 2 and also, according to D. 33, a name for the 4 supra-mundane fruitions: Stream-entrance, Once-return, Non-return, and Perfect Nobility see: ariya-puggala

Samāpatti: 'attainments', is a name for the 8 absorptions of the fine-material and immaterial spheres to which occasionally is added as 9th attainment, attainment of ceasing nirodhasamāpatti Cf. jhāna.

Sama-sīsī: one 'who attains two ends simultaneously', namely: the ceasing of fermentations and the end of life see: Pug. 19. In A. VIII, 6 it is said:,Such is the case with a Bhikkhu who dwells in the contemplation of impermanency of all forms of existence, keeping before his eyes their impermanency, perceiving their impermanency, perseveringly, steadfastly, undisturbed, of firm mind, wisely absorbed; and in whom at one and the same time the ceasing of fermentations and the end of like take place.; App.

Samatha: 'tranquillity', serenity, is a synonym of samādhi coneentration, cittekaggatā one-pointedness of mind and avikkhepa undistractedness. It is one of the mental properties in 'advantageous consciousness. Cf. foll. and bhāvanā

Samatha-vipassanā: 'tranquillity and insight', are identical with concentration samādhi see: prec. and understanding paññā, and form the two branches of mental development bhāvanā.

1 'Tranquillity' is all unperturbed, peaceful and lucid state of mind attained by strong mental concentration. Though as a distinct way of practice see: samatha-yānika, it aims at the attainment of the meditative absorptions jhāna, a high degree of tranquil concentration though not necessarily that of the absorptions is indispensable for insight too. Tranquillity frees the mind from impurities and inner obstacles, and gives it greater penetrative strength.

''What now is the power of tranquillity samatha-bala It is the one-pointedness and non-distraction of the mind due to freedom from desire renunciation... to freedom from ill-will... to the perception of light see: āloka-saññā.. to non-distraction... to the defilling of phenomena... to knowledge, gladness, the 8 attainments, the 10 kasinas, the 10 recollections, the 9 cemetery contemplations, the 32 kinds of respiration-awareness or mindfulness... the one-pointedness and non-distraction of the mind of one contemplating abandonment relinquishment while inhaling and exhaling see: ānāpānasati

The power of tranquillity consists of the freedom from perturbation; in the 1st absorption, from the 5 hindrances nīvarana, in the 2nd absorption, from thought-conception and discursive thinking;... in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception it consists of the freedom from perturbation by the perception of the sphere of nothingness see: anupubbanirodha which is no longer agitated and irritated by defilements associated with restlessness, nor by the groups of existence; Pts.M. 1. p. 97

2 'Insight' see: vipassanā is the penetrative understanding by direct meditative experience of the impermanency, unsatisfactoriness and impersonality of all material and mental phenomena of existence. It is insight that leads to entrance into the supermundance states of Nobility and to final liberation.

''What now is the power of insight? It is the contemplation of impermanency aniccānupassanā, of misery dukkhanupassanā impersonality' anattānupassanā of aversion nibbidanupassanā detachment virāganupassanā ceasing nirodha ahandonment patinissagga with regard to materiality, feeling, perception, mental constructions and consciousness.  That in contemplating the impermanency one is no more agitated by the idea of grasping... no more by ignorance and the defilements associated therewith and no more by the groups of existence: this is called the power of insight; Pts.M. p. 97.

Two things are conducive to knowledge: tranquillity and insight. If tranquillity is developed, what profit does it bring? The mind is developed. If the mind is developed, what profit does it bring? All lust is abandoned.

If insight is developed, what profit does it bring? Wisdom is developed. If understanding is developed, what profit does it bring? All ignorance is abandoned; A. II, 2.7.

There is a method of meditative practice where, in alternating sequence, tranquillity-meditation and insight-meditation are developed. It is called 'tranquillity and insight joined in pairs' samatha-vipassanāyuganaddha the coupling or yoking of tranquillity and insight. He who undertakes it, first enters into the 1st absorption. After rising from it, he contemplates the mental phenomena that were present in it feeling, perception, etc. as impermanent, painful and no-self, and thus he develops insight. Thereupon he enters into the 2nd absorption; and after rising from it, he again considers its constituent phenomena as impermanent, etc. In this way, he passes from one absorption to the next, until at last, during a moment of insight, the intuitive knowledge of the path of Stream-entry, etc. flashes forth - See A. IV, 170; A.IX, 36; Pts: Yuganaddha Kathā.

Samatha-yānika: 'one who takes tranquillity as his vehicle'. This is a name for a person who not only has reached insight but also one or the other of the absorptions, to distinguish him from one 'who practises only insight' sukkha-vipassaka.

Sambodhi: = bodhi

Sambojjhanga: = bojjhanga

Sammā-ditthi: sankappa-vaca etc: see magga.

Sammā-magga: see micchā-magga

Sammā-ppadhāna: 'right exertion', is identical with the 6th link of the 8-fold path see: magga padhāna

Sammā-sambodhi: 'Perfect Enlightenment', Universal Buddhahood, is the state attained by a Universal Buddha sammā-sambuddha i.e. one by whom the liberating law dhamma which had become lost to the world, has again been discovered, realized and clearly proclaimed to the world.

Now, someone, in things never heard before, understands by himself the truth, and he therein attains omniscience, and gains mastery in the powers. Such a one is called a Universal Buddha, or Enlightened One; Pug. 29.

The doctrine characteristie of all the Buddhas, and each time rediscovered by them and fully explained to the world, consists in the 4 Truths sacca of suffering, its origin, its ceasing and the way to its ceasing see: magga See bodhi.

Sammasana: 'comprehension', exploring, 'determining' vavatthāna is a name for the determining of all phenomena of existence as impermanent, miserable and impersonal anicca dukkha anattā etc., which is the beginning of insight see: Pts.M. I, p. 53; Vis.M XX; also called kalāpa-s, 'comprehension by groups of existence khandha App..

Sammatta: the 'state of rightness', are the 8 links of the 8-fold path D. 33. Cf. micchātta

Sammuti-sacca: 'conventional truth', is identical with vohāra-sacca see: paramattha-sacca.

Sampadā: 'attainment, blessing'. The 5 blessings are said to be faith, morality, learning, generosity, understanding A. V, 91. Further: morality, concentration, understanding, deliverance, the eye of knowledge connected with deliverance A. V, 92.

Sampajañña: 'clarity of consciousness', clear comprehension. This term is frequently met with in combination with awareness or mindfulness sati In D. 22, M. 10 it is said:;Clearly conscious is he in going and coming, clearly conscious in looking forward and backward, clearly conscious in bending and stretching his body; clearly conscious in eating, drinking, chewing and tasting, clearly conscious in discharging excrement and urine; clearly conscious in walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep and awakening; clearly conscious in speaking and keeping silent.; - For a definition of the term sati-sampajañña see: Pug. 86.

According to the Com., 'clarity of consciousness' is of 4 kinds: regarding the purpose, the suitability, inclusion in the meditative domain, and the unconfused conception of the activity concerned. Explained in detail in Com. to Satipatthāna Sutta. tr. in The Way of Mindfulness, by Soma Thera; BPS.

Sampaticchana-citta: 'receptive consciousness', is the mindelement mano-dhātu that follows immediately upon the arising of sense-consciousness visual consciousness, etc., performing on that occasion the function of recciving the sense-object. Regarding the other functions of consciousness, see: viññāna-kicca

Sampayutta-paccaya: 'condition of association', is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Samphassa: = phassa

Samsāra: 'round of rebirth', lit. perpetual wandering', is a name by which is designated the sca of life ever restlessly heaving up and down, the symbol of this continuous process of ever again and again being born, growing old, suffering and dying. More precisely put, samsāra is the unbroken chain of the five-fold khandha combinations, which, constantly changing from moment to moment follow continuously one upon the other through inconceivable periods of time. Of this samsāra a single lifetime constitutes only a tiny and fleeting fraction; hence to be able to comprehend the first noble truth of universal suffering, one must let one's gaze rest upon the samsāra upon this frightful chain of rebirths, and not merely upon one single life-time, which, of course, may be sometimes less painful. - Cf. tilakkhana, anattā, paramattha, patisandhi.

Samseva: 'companionship'. 1: Through companionship with bad men asappurisa-s comes listening to bad advice, thereby unwise reflection, thereby inattention and mental confusion, thereby lack of sense-control, thereby 3-fold bad conduct in bodily action, speech and mind, thereby the 5 hindrances nīvarana, thereby craving for existence. 2: Through companionship with good men sappurisa-s comes listening to good advice, thereby faith, thereby wise reflection, thereby awareness or mindfulness and clarity of consciousness, thereby sense-control, thereby 3-fold good conduct, thereby the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness satipatthāna q.v, thereby the 7 factors of enlightenment bojjhanga, thereby liberation through understanding paññā-vimutti.; Cf. A. X 62.

Samuccheda-pahāna: 'overcoming by destruction', is the absolute ceasing of certain mental chains of existence samyojana, which takes place by entering into one of the 4 supra-mundane paths of Nobility see: ariya-puggala Regarding the 5 kinds of overcoming, see: pahāna

Samudaya-sacca: 'truth of the origin', i.e. the origin of suffering, is the 2nd of the 4 Noble Truths sacca.

Samutthāna: 'origination'. There are 4 kinds of origination of material phenomena, namely: through kamma, consciousness, temperature, nutriment. For example, 'kamma-produced' kamma-s. = kammaja kamma-born are the sense organs, sexual characteristics, etc., which, according to their nature, are conditioned either through advantageous or disadvantageous kamma constructions intentional actions; see: paticcasamuppāda 2 in a previous existence. 'Mindproduced', i.e. consciousness-produced citta-samutthāna = cittaja are bodily and verbal expression viññatti. For a detailed exposition, see Vis.M XX. - App..

Samvara-padhāna: 'effort to avoid'; see: padhāna.

Samvara-sīla: indriya-s.'; see: sīla.

Samvara-suddhi: 'purity of control', is another name for morality consisting of restraint of the senses indriya-samvara-sīla see: sīla

Samvatta-kappa: s. kappa

Samvega-vatthu: 'the sources of emotion', or of a sense of urgency, are 8:,birth, old age, disease, death, being 4; the suffering in the lower states of existence being the 5th; further, the misery of the past rooted in the cycle of rebirth, the misery of the future rooted in the cycle of rebirth, the misery of the present rooted in the search after food; Vis.M III..

Samvejanīya-tthāna: 'places rousing emotion', are 4: the place where the Perfect One was born, i.e. the Lumbini-grove near Kapilavatthu, at the present frontier of Nepal; the place where he reached Full Enlightenment i.e. Uruvela, the modern Ureli, and Buddhagayā, on the Nerañjara-river; the modern Lilanja; the place where he, for the first time, unveiled the Dhamma to the world i.e. the deer-park at Isipatana near Benares; the place where he entered the final Nibbāna i.e. Kusināra. A. IV, 118.

Samyojana: 'mental chains'. There are 10 mental chains tying beings to the wheel of existence, namely; 1: personality-or-ego-belief sakkāya-ditthi, 2: sceptical doubt vicikicchā, 3: clinging to mere rules and ritual sīlabbata-parāmāsa, see: upādāna 4 sense-craving kāma-rāga.v., 5 ill-will vyāpāda 6 craving for fine-material existence rūpa-rāga 7 craving for immaterial existence arūpa-rāga 8 conceit māna, 9 restlessness uddhacca,, 10 ignorance avijjā. The first five of these are called 'lower mental chains' orambhāgiya-samyojana as they tie to the sense-world. The latter 5 are called 'higher mental chains' uddhambhāgiya-samyojana as they tie to the higher worlds, i.e. the fine-material and immaterial world A. IX, 67, 68; X. 13; D. 33, etc..

He who is free from 1-3 is a Sotāpanna, or Stream-winner, i.e. one who has entered the stream to Nibbāna, as it were. He who, besides these 3 mental chains, has overcome 4 and 5 in their grosser form, is called a Sakadāgāmi, a 'Once-returner' to this sense-world. He who is fully freed from 1-5 is an Anāgāmī, or 'Non-returner' to the sense-world. He who is freed from all the 10 mental chains is called an Arahat, i.e. a perfectly Noble One.

For more details, see: ariya-puggala.

The 10 mental chains as enumerated in the Abhidhamma, e.g. Vibh. XVII, are: sense-craving, ill-will, conceit, wrong views, sceptical doubt, clinging to mere rules and ritual, craving for existence, envy, stinginess, ignorance.

Sañcetanā: = cetanā

Sangaha-vatthu: the 4 'ways of showing favour' are generosity, kindly speech, beneficial actions, impartiality A. IV, 32; VIII, 24.

Sangha: lit.: congregation, is the name for the Community of Buddhist Bhikkhus. As the third of the Three Gems or Jewels ti-ratana and the Three Refuges ti-sarana,, i.e. Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha, it applies to the ariya-sangha the community of the saints, i.e. the 4 Noble Ones ariya-pugga, the Stream-winner, etc.

Sankappa: 'thought', is a synonym of vitakka For sammā-s or right thought, see: magga 2.

Sankhāra: This term has, according to its context, different shades of meaning, which should be carefully distinguished.

I To its most frequent usages see: foll. 1-4 the general term 'construction' may be applied, with the qualifications required by the context. This term may refer either to the act of 'forming or to the passive state of 'having been formed' or to both.

1. As the 2nd link of the formula of dependent origination, paticcasamuppāda, sankhāra has the active aspect, 'forming, and signifies kamma, i.e. advantageous or disadvantageous intentional activity cetanā of body kāya-s speech vacī-s or mind citta or mano-s This definition occurs, e.g. at S. XII, 2, 27. For s.: in this sense, the word 'kamma-construction' has been coined by the author. In other passages, in the same context, s. is defined by reference to a meritorious kammic-constructions puññ'ābhisankhāra b disadvantageous k. apuññ'abhisankhāra c imperturbable k. āneñj'ābhisankhāra e.g. in S. XII, 51; D. 33. This threefold division covers kammic activity in all spheres of existence: the meritorious kammic-constructions extend to the sense-and the fine-material sphere, the disadvantageous ones only to the sense-sphere, and the 'imperturbable' only to the immaterial sphere.

2. The aforementioned three terms, kāya, vacī- and citta-s are sometimes used in quite a different sense, namely as 1 bodily function, i.e. in-and-out-breathing e.g. M. 10, 2 verbal function, i.e. thought-conception and discursive thinking, 3 mental-function, i.e. feeling and perception e.g. M. 44. See nirodhasamāpatti.

3. It also denotes the 4th group of existence sankhāra-khandha and includes all 'mental constructions' whether they belong to 'kammically forming' consciousness or not. See khandha Tab. II. and S. XXII, 56, 79.

4. It occurs further in the sense of anything formed sankhata and conditioned, and includes all things whatever in the world, all phenomena of existence. This meaning applies, e.g. to the well-known passage,;All constructions are impermanent... subject to suffering; sabbe sankhāra aniccā dukkhā In that context, however, s. is subordinate to the still wider and all-embracing term dhamma thing; for dhamma includes also the Unformed or Unconditioned Element asankhata-dhātu i.e. Nibbāna e.g. in sabbe, dhammā all things are without a self;.

II sankhāra also means sometimes 'intentional effort', e.g. in the formula of the roads to power iddhi-pāda, in sasankhāra and asankhāra-parinibbāyī see: anāgāmī, and in the Abhidhamma terms asankhārika and sasankhārika-citta i.e. without effort = spontaneously, and with effort = prompted.

In Western literature, in English as well as in German, sankhāra is sometimes mistranslated by 'subconscious latent tendencies' or similarly e.g Prof Beckh:,unterbewußte Bildekräfte,; i.e. subconscious formative forces. This misinterpretation derives perhaps from a similar usage in non-Buddhist Sanskrit literature, and is entirely inapplicable to the connotations of the term in Pāli Buddhism, as listed above under I, 1-4. For instance, within the dependent origination, s. is neither subconscious nor a mere tendency, but is a fully conscious and active kammic intention. In the context of the 5 groups of existence see: above I, 3, a very few of the factors from the group of mental constructions sankhāra-khandha are also present as properties of subconsciousness see: Tab. I-III, but are of course not restricted to it, nor are they mere latent tendencies.

Sankhārupekkhā-ñāna: the 'equanimity-knowledge with regard to the constructions of existence', is one of those kinds of knowledge which form the 'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress' see: visuddhi VI, 8.;It is known by 3 names: in the lowest stage it is called 'knowledge consisting in the desire for deliverance' rnuccitu-kamyatā-ñāna in the middle stage it is called the 'reflecting contemplation' patisankhānupassanāñāna in the last stage, however, i.e. after attaining the summit, it is called the 'equanimity-knowledge with regard to the constructions of existence'Vis.M XXI.

Sankhata: the 'constructed' or 'formed', i.e. anything originated or conditioned, comprises all phenomena of existence. Cf. sankhāra I, 4; asankhata.

Sankhitta citta: in the Satipatthāna Sutta, signifies the 'contracted' or 'cramped' mind, not the concentrated samāhita mind, as often translated by Western authors. Cf. satipatthāna 3.

Saññā: 1. 'perception', is one of the 5 groups of existence khandha, and one of the 7 mental properties cetasika that are inseparably bound up with all consciousness see: cetanā It is sixfold as perception of the 5 physical sense-objects and of mental objects. It is the awareness of an object's distinctive marks,one perceives blue, yellow, etc.,; S. XXII, 79. If, in repeated perception of an object, these marks are recognized, saññā functions as 'memory' see: Abh. St., p. 68f..

2. saññā stands sometimes for consciousness in its entirety, e.g. in n'eva-saññā-n'āsaññāyatana 'the realm of neither-perception-nor-non-perception'; further, in asaññā-satta 'unconscious beings'. In both cases reference is not to 'perception' alone, but also to all other constituents of consciousness. Cf. D. 9.

3. saññā may also refer to the 'ideas', which are objects of meditation, e.g. in a group of 7 ideas, of impermanence anicca-s etc. A. VII, 46; of 10: impurity asubha-s etc. A. X, 56, and another set of 10 in A. X. 60; or to wrong notions, as in nicca, subha-s the notion of permanence, beauty, etc.

Saññā-vedayita-nirodha: = nirodha-samāpatti

Saññā-vipallāsa: 'perversion of perception' see: vipallāsa

Saññojana: = samyojana

Santāna: = santati 'continuity', may refer to the continuity of consciousness citta-s of the groups of existence khandha-s of sub-consciousness bhavanga-s of materiality rūpa-s to the uninterrupted continuity of the paticcasamuppāda, etc. App..

Santīrana-citta: 'investigating consciousness', is one of the stages in the cognitive series. For the 14 functions of consciousness. see: viññānakicca.

Santutthitā: 'contentedness'; see: ariya-vamsa.

Sapadānik'anga: s. dhutānga.

Sappatigha-rūpa: 'materiality reacting to sense stimuli', refers to the 5 sense-organs āyatana. - Cf. Vibh. II see: Guide II, Chap. II and Vis.M XIV; further see: patigha 2.

Sarana: s. ti-sarana.

Sāsana: lit. 'message': the Dispensation of the Buddha, the Buddhist religion; teaching, doctrine.

navanga-Buddha or satthu-sāsana the ninefold Dispensation of the Buddha or the Master consists of suttas sutta mixed prose geyya exegesis veyyākarana verses gāthā solemn utterances udāna sayings of the Blessed One itivuttaka birth stories jātaka extraordinary things abbhutadhamma and analysis vedalla This classification is often found in the suttas e.g. M. 22. According to the commentaries, also the Vinaya and the Abhidhamma Pitaka are comprised in that ninefold division see Atthasālini Tr., I, 33. It is a classification according to literary styles, and not according to given texts or books.

Sasankhāra-parinibbāyī: 'one who reaches Nibbāna with exertion', is a name of one of the 5 kinds of Non-returners anāgāmī.

Sasankhārika-citta: in Dhs.: sasankhārena a prepared, or prompted. state of consciousness, arisen after prior deliberation e.g. weighing of motives or induced by others command, advice, persuasion - See Tab. I; exemplified in Vis.M XIV, 84f. - Opposite: asankhārika-citta

Sassata-ditthi: -vāda: 'eternity-belief', is the belief in a soul or personality existing independently of the 5 groups of existence, and continuing after death eternally, as distinguished from the 'annihilation-belief' uccheda-ditthi i.e. the belief in a personality falling at death a prey to absolute annihilation. For more details, see: ditthi

Sati: 'awareness or mindfulness', is one of the 5 spiritual abilities and powers see: bala one of the 7 factors of enlightenment bojjhanga, and the 7th link of the 8-fold path magga, and is, in its widest sense, one of those mental properties inseparably associated with all kammically advantageous kusala and kamma-produced lofty sobhana consciousness Cf. Tab. II.. - For the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness see: foll.

Satipatthāna: the 4 'foundations of awareness or mindfulness', lit. 'awarenesses of awareness or mindfulness' sati-upatthāna are: contemplation of body, feeling, mind and mental-objects. - For sati see: prec.

A detailed treatment of this subject, so important for the practice of Buddhist mental culture, is given in the 2 Satipatthāna Suttas D. 22; M. 10, which at the start as well as the conclusion, proclaim the weighty words:;The only way that leads to the attainment of purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to the end of pain and grief, to the entering of the right path, and to the realization of Nibbāna is the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness

After these introductory words, and upon the question which these 4 are, it is said that the Bhikkhu dwells in contemplation of the body, the feelings, the mind, and the mental-objects,;ardent, clearly conscious and mindful, after putting away worldly greed and grief

These 4 contemplations are in reality not to be taken as merely separate exercises, but on the contrary, at least in many cases, especially in the absorptions, as things inseparably associated with each other. Thereby the Satipathāna Sutta forms an illustration of the way in which these 4 contemplations relating to the 5 groups of existence khandha simultaneously come to be realized, and finally lead to insight into the impersonality of all existence.

1: The contemplation of the body kāyanupassanā consists of the following exercises: awareness or mindfulness with regard to in-and-outbreathing ānāpānasati, minding the 4 postures iriyāpatha, awareness or mindfulness and clarity of consciousness satisampajañña, reflection on the 32 parts of the body see: kāyagatāsati and asubha analysis of the 4 physical elements dhātuvavatthāna, cemetery meditations sīvathikā.

2: All feelings vedanānupassanā  that arise in the meditator he clearly perceives, namely: pleasant and painful feeling of body and mind, sensual and super-sensual feeling, indifferent feeling.

3: He further clearly perceives and understands any state of consciousness or mind cittānupassanā: whether it is greedy or not, hateful or not, confused or not, cramped or distracted, developed or undeveloped, surpassable or unsurpassable, concentrated or unconcentrated, liberated or unliberated.

4: Concerning the mental-objects dhammānupassanā he knows whether one of the five hindrances nīvarana is present in him or not, knows how it arises, how it is overcome, and how in future it does no more arise. He knows the nature of each of the five groups khandha, how they arise, and how they are dissolved. He knows the 12 bases of all mental activity āyatana : the eye and the visual object, the ear and the audible object,.. mind and mental-object, he knows the mental chains samyojana based on them, knows how they arise, how they are overcome, and how in future they do no more arise. He knows whether one of the seven factors of enlightenment bojjhanga is present in him or not, knows how it arises, and how it comes to full development. Each of the Four Noble Truths sacca he understands according to reality.

The 4 contemplations comprise several exercises, but the Satipatthāna should not therefore be thought of as a mere collection of meditation subjects, any one of which may be taken out and practised alone. Though most of the exercises appear also elsewhere in the Buddhist scriptures, in the context of this sutta they are chiefly intended for the cultivation of awareness or mindfulness and insight, as indicated by the repetitive passage concluding each section of the sutta see below. The 4 contemplations cover all the 5 groups of existence khandha, because awareness or mindfulness is meant to encompass the whole personality. Hence, for the full development of awareness or mindfulness, the practice should extend to all 4 types of contemplation, though not every single exercise mentioned under these four headings need be taken up. A methodical practice of Satipatthāna has to start with one of the exercises out of the group 'contemplation of the body', which will serve as the primary and regular subject of meditation: The other exercises of the group and the other contemplatons are to be cultivated when occasion for them arises during meditation and in everyday life.

After each contemplation it is shown how it finally leads to insight-knowledge:,Thus with regard to his own body he contemplates the body, with regard to the bodies of others he contemplates the body, with regard to both he contemplates the body. He beholds how the body arises and how it passes away, beholds the arising and passing away of the body. 'A body is there' but no living being, no individual, no woman, no man, no self, nothing that belongs to a self; neither a person, nor anything belonging to a person; Com.: thus he has established his attentiveness as far as it serves his knowledge and awareness or mindfulness, and he lives independent, unattached to anything in the world.''

In the same way he contemplates feeling, mind and mental-objects.

In M. 118 it is shown how these four foundations of awareness or mindfulness may be brought about by the exercise of awareness or mindfulness on in-and-out breathing ānāpāna-sati.

Literature: The Way of Mindfullness, tr. of Sutta and Com., by Soma Thera 3rd ed; Kandy 1967, BPS. - The Heart of Buddhist Meditation, by Nyanaponika Thera 3rd ed.; London. Rider & Co.. The Foundations of Mindfulness tr. of M. 10, Nyanasatta Thera Wheel 19. The Satipatthāna Sutta and its Application to Modern Life, V. F. Gunaratna WHEEL 60. - The Power of Mindfulness by Nyanaponika Thera WHEEL 121/122.

Sati-sambojjhanga: 'awareness or mindfulness as link to Awakening' see: bojjhanga

Sati-sampajañña: 'awareness or mindfulness and clarity of consciousness, see: sampajañña.

Satta: 'living being'. This term, just like attā puggala, jīva and all the other terms denoting 'ego-entity', is to be considered as a merely conventional term vohāra-vacana not possessing any reality-value. For the impersonality of all existence. see: anattā, paramattha puggala, jīva, satta, paticcasamuppāda.

Sattakkhattu-parama: 'one wth only 7 further rebirths at the utmost', is one of the 3 kinds of Stream-winners sotāpanna.

Sattāvāsa: Nava sattāvāsa: '9 abodes of beings'. In the sutta-texts e.g. D. 33; A.IX, 24 9 such abodes are mentioned:

There are, o Bhikkhus, 9 abodes of beings, namely:

1;There are beings who are different in body and different in perception, such as the human beings, some divine beings, and some beings living in the world of suffering vinipātika.

2 ''There are beings who are different in body but equal in perception, such as the first-born gods of the Brahma-world i.e. at the beginning of each new world-construction; s. deva II.

3 ''There are beings who are equal in body but different in perception, such as the Radiant Gods ābhassara see: deva II.

4;There are beings who are equal in body and equal in perception, such as the All-Illuminating Gods subha-kinha see: deva II.

5;There are beings without perception and feeling, such as the unconscious beings asañña-satta.

6;There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of perceptions of matter rūpa-sañña the disappearance of perceptions of sense-reaction patigha-sañña, and the non-attention to perceptions of variety thinking: 'Infinite is space', are reborn in the sphere of buundless space see: deva III; jhāna.

7;There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of the sphere of Infinite space, thinking: 'Infinite is consciousness', are reborn in the sphere of Infinite consciousness see: jhāna 6.

8;There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of the sphere of Infinite consciousness, thinking: 'Nothing is there, are reborn in the sphere of nothingness see: jhāna 7.

9;There are beings who, through the complete overcoming of the sphere of nothingness, are reborn in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception see: jhāna 8; A. IX, 24.

According to the Com. to A., the beings of the Pure Abodes suddhāvāsa are not mentioned here, for the reason that they exist only in those world-periods in which Buddhas appear. Cf. viññāna-tthiti.

Sa-upādisesa-nibbāna: s. nibbāna, upādi.

Sāvaka: 'hearer', i.e. 'disciple', refers, in a restricted sense then mostly ariya-sāvaka 'nohle disciple', only to the 8 kinds of Noble Disciples ariya-puggala.

Sāvaka-bodhi: 'enlightenment of the disciple', designates the Nobility of the disciple, as distinguished from the Nobility of the Pacceka-Buddha and the Sammā-sambuddha:.

Sceptical doubt: vicikicchā Cf. kankhā.

Regrets: kukkucca

Sekha: a 'noble learner', a disciple in higher training, i.e. one who pursues the 3 kinds of training sikkhā, is one of those 7 kinds of Noble Disciples who have reached one of the 4 supra-mundane paths or the 3 lower fruitions see: ariya-puggala while the one possessed of the 4th fruition, or Arahatta-phala, is called 'one beyond training' asekha lit. 'no more learner'. The worldling puthujjana is called 'neither a noble learner, nor perfected in learning' n'eva-sekha-nāsekha Cf. Pug. 23-25.

Self: attā.

Self-annihilation: craving for: vibhava-Tanhā see: tanhā.

Self-confidence: vesārajja

Self-mortification: atta-kilamatha

Senāsana: 'dwelling place', is one of the 4 requisites of the monk's life see: sīla 4. To be suitable for spiritual training, it should possess 5 advantages. As it is said A. X, 11:;But how, o Bhikkhus, does the dwelling place possess 5 advantages? Such a dwelling place is not too far, nor too near to the village, is suitable for going on foodround and returning. In the daytime it is not much crowded, and at night without noise and bustle. One is not much molested there by gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, sun and creeping things. While living there, the Bhikkhu without difficulty obtains robes, foodfood, dwelling, and the necessary medicines. There are elder Bhikkhus living there, with great learning, well versed in the Message, masters of the Law dhamma of the Discipline vinaya and of the Tables of Contents i.e. either the twofold Abhidhamma Matrix, or the Bhikkhu and Bhikkhuni Pātimokkha; see: pātimokkha And he approaches them from time to time, questions them, asks them for explanations, etc.

Sense-organs: and objects: s. āyatana, dhātu

Sense-stimuli: materiality responding to: see: āyatana.

Sensitive materiality: pasāda-rūpa

Sensuality: subj. & obj.: kāma

Sense-clinging: kāmūpādāna see: upādāna.

Sense-craving: kāma-tanhā-rāga, is one of the 10 mental chains samyojana, and one of the 3 kinds of craving tanhā.

Sense-sphere: -world: see: avacara loka

Serenity: s. samatha.

Seven rebirths at the utmost: s. sotāpanna

Sex: s. bhāva.

Sexual intercourse: unlawful: see: kāmesu micchācāra.

Shame: hiri

Shamelessness: ahirika

Signless: animitta: see: ceto-vimutti, vimokkha, vipassanā.

Sikkhā: the 'training', which the Buddha's disciple has to undergo, is 3-fold: training in higher morality adhisīla-sikkhā in higher mentality adhicitta-sikkhā and in higher understanding adhipaññā-sikkhā This 3-fold training refers to the 3-fold division of the 8-fold path magga in morality, concentration and understanding sīla samādhi, paññā In D. 16 and A.IV,1 it is said:

It is through not understanding, not penetrating noble morality... noble concentration... noble understanding... noble deliverance that I, as well as you, have had for such a long time to pass through this round of rebirths.''

This then is morality, this concentration, this understanding, this deliverance. Being endowed with morality, concentration brings high fruit and blessing. Being endowed with concentration, understanding brings high fruit and blessing. Being endowed with understanding, the mind becomes freed from all fermentations āsava namely, from the sense-fermentation kāmāsava, from the fermentation of existence bhavasava from the fermentation of opinions ditthisava from the fermentation of ignorance avijjāsava

Sikkhāpada: 'steps of training', moral rules.

The 5 moral rules, also called pañca-sīla which are binding on all Buddhist laymen, are: 1 abstaining from killing any living being, 2 from stealing, 3 from unlawful sexual intercourse, 4 from lying, 5 from the use of intoxicants. see: surāmeraya etc.

The 10 rules dasa-sīla are binding on all novices and Bhikkhus, namely: 1 abstaining from killing, 2 from stealing, 3 from unchastity, 4 from lying, 5 from the use of intoxicants, 6 from eating after midday, 7 from dancing, singing, music and shows, 8 from garlands, scents, cosmetics and adornments, etc., 9 from luxurious beds, 10 from accepting gold and silver.

In the 8 rules attha-sīla which on full and new moon days, and on the first and last quarter of the moon, are observed by many lay-followers upāsaka, the 7th and 8th of the above 10 rules are fused into one as the 7th rule, while the 9th becomes the 8th.

Sīla: 'morality', 'virtue', is a mode of mind and intention cetanā manifested in speech or bodily action see: kamma. It is the foundation of the whole Buddhist practice, and therewith the first of the 3 kinds of training sikkhā that form the 3-fold division of the 8-fold path see: magga i.e. morality, concentration and understanding.

Buddhist morality is not, as it may appear from the negative formulations in the Sutta-texts, something negative. And it does not consist in the mere not committing of evil actions, but is in each instance the clearly conscious and intentional restraint from the bad actions in question and corresponds to the simultaneously arising intention.

Morality of the 8-fold path, namely, right speech, right action and right livelihood, is called 'genuine or natural morality' pakatisīla as distinguished from the external rules for Bhikkhus or laymen, the so-called 'prescribed morality' paññatti-sīla,, which, as such, is kammically neutral.

What now is kammically advantageous morality kusala-sīla It is the advantageous bodily action kāya-kamma see: kamma, advantageous verbal action vacī-kamma kamma, and also the purity with regard to livelihood which I call morality; M. 78. Cf. magga 3-5.

For the 5, 8 and 10 rules, see: sikkhāpada Further cf. cāritta and vāritta-sīla.

The 4 kinds of morality consisting of purification catu-pārisuddhi-sīla-sīla are: 1 restraint with regard to the Bhikkhus' Disciplinary Code, 2 restraint of the senses, 3 purification of livelihood, 4 morality with regard to the 4 requisites of the monk.

1: Restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code pātimokkha-samvara-sīla,Here the Bhikkhu is restrained in accordance with the Bhikkhus' Disciplinary Code, is perfect in conduct and behaviour, and perceiving danger even in the least offences, he trains himself in the rules he has taken upon him; A. V, 87,109,114, etc..

2: Restraint of the senses indriya-samvara-sīla Whenever the Bhikkhu perceives a form with the eye, a sound with the ear, an odour with the nose, a taste with the tongue, an contact with the body, an object with the mind, he neither adheres to the appearance as a whole, nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and disadvantageous things, greed and sorrow, would arise, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses; M 38.

3: Purification of livelihood ājīva-pārisuddhi-sīla It consists therein that the Bhikkhu does not acquire his livelihood in a way unbefitting to a monk.

4: Morality with regard to the 4 recquisites paccaya-sannissita-sīla It consists therein that the Bhikkhu is guided by the right mental attitude when making use of the 4 requisites: robes, foodfood, dwelling and medicine.;Wisely reflecting he makes use of his robes... merely to protect himself against cold and heat, etc. Wisely reflecting he makes use of his foodfood... merely as a prop and support to this body.  Wisely reflecting he makes use of his dwelling... merely to keep off the dangers of weather and to enjoy solitude.  Wisely reflecting he makes use of the necessary medicines, merely to suppress feelings of sickness that arise, and to reach perfect freedom from suffering; cf. M. 2.

About these 4 kinds of morality, Vis.M I gives a detailed exposition.

Sīlabbata-parāmāsa: and Sīlabbata-upādāna: 'attachment or clinging to mere rules and ritual', is the 3rd of the 10 mental chains samyojana, and one of the 4 kinds of clinging upādāna. It disappears on attaining to Stream-entry sotāpatti. For definition, see: upādāna

Sīla-samādhi-paññā: s. sikkhā, magga.

Silent buddha: pacceka-buddha.

Sitting position: sleeping in: see: dhutānga

Sīvathikā: 'cemetery contemplations', as described in D. 22 and M. 10, have as their objects a corpse one or two or three days old, swollen up, blue-black in colour, full of corruption; a corpse eaten by crows, etc.; a framework of bones; flesh hanging from it, bespattered with blood, held together by the sinews; without flesh and blood, but still held together by the sinews; bones scattered in all direction; bleached and resembling shells; heaped together after the lapse of years; weathered and crumbled to dust. At the end of each of these contemplations there follows the conclusion:;This body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, cannot escape it.; Similar are the 10 objects of loathsomeness asubha.

Skilful: kusala

Lethargy: middha, see: nīvarana

Sobhana: 'lofty', beautiful, pure, are called, in Abh. S., all states of consciousness excepting the disadvantageous and those without roots ahetuka sobhana-sādhārana-cetasika are called the mental properties cetasika common to all lofty consciousness; see: Tab. II.

Somanassa: lit 'glad-minded-ness' su+manas+ya gladness, joy; identical with 'mentally pleasant feeling' cetasikā, sukhā belongs to the feeling-group vedanā -khandha see: khandha II, and is enumerated amongst the 22 abilities indriya. It may or may not be associated with kammically advantageous consciousness see: Tab. I. 1-4, 9-12, 18-21, with kammically disadvantageous consciousness greedy c. ib. 22-25, and with kammically neutral consciousness ib. 40, 42-45, 57-60, 66-69, 72-76. 81-84, - somanassa is not identical with pīti.

Somanassūpavicāra: 'indulging in gladness'; see: mano-pavicāra

Something: kiñcana.

Sotāpanna: the 'Stream-winner', is the lowest of the 8 Noble Disciples see: ariya-puggala Three kinds are to be distinguished: the one 'with 7 rebirths at the utmost' sattakkhattu-parama, the one 'passing from one noble family to another' kolankola the one 'germinating only once more' eka-bījī As it is said e.g. Pug. 37-39; A. III, 87:

1;If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 mental chains personality-belief, skeptical doubt, attachment to rules and ritual; see: samyojana has entered the stream to Nibbāna, he is no more subject to rebirth in lower worlds, is firmly established, destined to full enlightenment. After having passed amongst the divine and human beings only seven times more through the round of rebirths, he puts an end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one with 7 births at the utmost' sattakkhattu-parama.

2;If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 mental chains.  is destined to full enlightenment, he, after having passed among noble families two or three times through the round of rebirths, puts an end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one passing from one noble family to another' kolankola.

3;If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 mental chains.  is destined to full enlightenment, he, after having only once more returned to human existence, puts an end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one germinating only once more' eka-bījī See Sotāpatti-Samyutta S. LV.

Sotāpannassa angāni: the 'characteristic qualities of a Stream-winner' are 4: unshakable faith towards the Enlightened One, unshakable faith towards the Doctrine, unshakable faith towards the Order, and perfect morality. Explained in S. LV, I, D. 33, in S. XLVII, 8 and in Netti-ppakarana these 4 qualities are called sotāpattiyanga.

Sotāpatti: 'Stream-entry'; see: sotāpanna see: magga, -phala, path and fruition of Stream-entry'; see: ariya-puggala.

Sotāpattiyanga: the 4 preliminary 'conditions to Stream-entry' are: companionship with good persons, hearing the Good Law, wise reflection, living in conformity with the Law S. LV, 5; D. 33. Cf. sotāpannassa angāni

Space: s. Ākāsa.

Spheres: of existence: avacara- The 4 immaterial spheres āyatana : see: jhāna 5-8.

Spiritual abilities: s. indriya 15-19, indriya-samatta bala

Spontaneously born beings: opapātika

Stains: the 3: mala

Standstill: of morality etc.: see: hāna-bhāgiya-sīla.: b S.: of existence: vivatta

Stinginess: macchariya, cf. Tab. II.

Stored-up kamma: katattā see: kamma.

Stream-entry: s. sotāpanna ariya-puggala

Streams of merit: puññadhārā

Stream-winner: s. sotāpanna ariya-puggala

Stupid-natured: s. carita.

Subconscious stream: of existence: bhavanga-sota

Subha-kinha: or-kinna: s. deva II.

Subha-nimitta: 'beautiful or attractive object of mind'; it may become an inducement to the arising of sense-desire kāmacchanda see: nīvarana,No other thing do I know, o Bhikkhus, through which in such a degree sense-desire may arise, and once arisen will continue to grow, as an attractive object. Whoso does not wisely consider an attractive object, in him sense-desire will arise, and once arisen will continue to grow; A. I, 2.

Subha-saññā, Subha-citta, Subha-ditthi: 'the perception consciousnes or view of beauty or purity' in what is actually devoid of it asubha subha-saññā is one of the 4 perversions vipallāsa.

Sublime abodes: or States: brahma-vihāra

Substrata of existence: upadhi

Sucarita: 'good conduct', is 3-fold, in body, speech and mind, and comprises the 10 advantageous courses of action see: kamma-patha According to A. X, 61, it has sense-control as its condition. See D. 33, A. II, 17; III, 2.

Successive births: kamma ripening in: see: kamma.

Suchness: Tathatā

Sudassa: & Sudassī: s. foll.

Suddhāvāsa: the 'Pure Abodes', are a group of 5 heavens belonging to the fine-material world rūpa-loka see: loka where only the Non-returners see: anāgāmī are reborn, and in which they attain Arahatship and Nibbāna ariya-puggala The names of the inhabitants of these Pure Abodes are: Āviha, Ātappa, Sudassa, Sudassī, Akanittha Cf. anāgāmī

Suddha-vipassanā-yānika: = sukha-vipassaka

Suffering: For the 4 Truths of suffering, see: sacca further see: ti-lakkhana

Sugati: 'happy course of existence'; see: gati.

Sukha: pleasant, happy; happiness, pleasure, joy, bliss. It is one of the three feelings see: vedanā and may be either bodily or mental. The texts distinguish between the happiness of the senses and the h. of renunciation A. II, worldly carnal;sāmisa and unworldly non-carnal; nirāmisa happiness M. 10. See A. II, ch. VIII. - Happiness is an indispensable condition for attaining concentration of mind samādhi, and therefore it is one of the 5 factors or constituents of the 1st absorption jhānanga see: jhāna and is present up to the 3rd absorption inclusively.;The mind of the happy one has concentration as its fruit and reward; A.X,1. -;In him who is filled with happiness, right concentration has found a foundation; A.X,3.

Sukha-saññā, Sukha-citta, Sukha-ditthi: 'the perception consciousness or view of happiness' in what is actually suffering dukkhe sukha-saññā i.e. any form of existence, it is one of the perversions vipallāsa.

Sukkha-vipassaka: 'one supported by bare insight', is the commentarial term for one who, without having attained any of the meditative absorptions jhāna, has realized only by the support of insight vipassanā one or several of the supra-mundane paths see: ariya-puggala In Vis.M XVIII, he is called suddha-vipassanā-yānika as distinguished from 'one who has tranquillity as vehicle' samathayānika. Though the primary meaning of sukkha as intended here is as stated above, subcommentaries e.g. D. Tīkā employ also the literal meaning of sukkha i.e. 'dry':;His insight is dry, rough, unmoistened by the moisture of tranquillity meditation.; This justifies a frequent rendering of this term by 'dry-visioned' or 'having dry insight', which, however, should not lead to misconceptions about the nature of insight meditation as being 'dry' or 'merely intellectual', while in fact the development of insight will produce rapture pīti and a sense of urgency samvega in the meditator. - App..

Suñña: adj., Suññatā: noun: void ness, empty emptiness. As a doctrinal term it refers, in Theravāda, exclusively to the anattā doctrine,.i.e. the unsubstantiality of all phenomena:;Void is the world... because it is void of a self and anything belonging to a self; suññam attena attaniyena S. XXXV, 85; also stated of the 5 groups of existence khandha in the same text. See also M. 43, M. 106. - In CNidd. quoted in Vis.M XXI, 55, it is said:,Eye... mind, visual objects... mental-objects, visual consciousness... mind-consciousness, materiality... consciousness, etc., are void of self and anything belonging to a self; void of permanency and of anything lasting, eternal or immutable.. They are coreless: without a core of permanency, or core of happiness or core of self.; - In M. 121, the voiding of the mind of the fermentations, in the attainment of Arahatship, is regarded as the;fully purified and incomparably highest concept of voidness. - See Sn. v. 1119; M. 121; M. 122 WHEEL 87; Pts.M. II: Suñña-kathā; Vis.M XXI, 53ff.

Suññatānupassanā: 'contemplation of emptiness' see: prec., is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight vipassanā. Cf. Vis.M XXI.

Suññatā-vimokkha: 'emptiness-deliverance'; see: vimokkha

Superiority-conceit: s. māna.

Supra-mundane: lokuttara, -abilities: see: indriya 20-22.

Supernormal: mahaggata, -knowledges: see: abhiññā.

Support, Decisive support: nissaya upanissaya are two of the 24 conditions see: paccaya

Supportive kamma: upatthambhaka-kamma see: kamma.

Suppressive kamma: upapīlaka-kamma see: kamma.

Surāmeraya-majja-ppamādatthānā veramanī sikkhāpadam samādiyāmi: I take upon myself the vow to abstain from taking intoxicants and drugs such as wine, liquor, etc. since they lead to moral carelessness.; This is the wording of the last of the 5 moral rules see: sikkhāpada binding on all Buddhists.

Susānik'anga: s. dhutānga.

Suta-mayā paññā: 'knowledge based on learning'; see: paññā

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