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Ubhato-bhāga-vimutta: the 'both-ways-liberated one', is the name of one class of Noble Disciples ariya-puggala. He is liberated in 2 ways, namely, by way of all 8 absorptions jhāna as well as by the supra-mundane path sotāpatti, etc. based on insight vipassanā. In M. 70 it is said:

''Who, o Bhikkhus, is a both-ways-liberated one'? If someone in his own person has reached the 8 liberations absorptions, and through wise penetration the fermentations āsava have become extinguished, such a one is called a both-ways-liberated one.'' Cf. D. 15.

In the widest sense, one is both-ways-liberated if one has reached one or the other of the absorptions, and one or the other of the supra-mundane paths cf. A. IX, 44.

The first liberation is also called 'liberation of mind' ceto-vimutti the latter liberation through understanding' paññā-vimutti.

The first liberation, however, is merely temporary, being a liberation through repression vikkhambhana-vimutti = vikkhambhana-pahāna see: pahāna

Uccheda-ditthi: 'annihilation-view'; see: ditthi.

Udayabbayānupassanā-ñāna: 'knowledge consisting in the contemplation of rise and fall', is the first of the 9 insight-knowledges constituting the purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress'. For details, see: visuddhi VI. 1.

Uddhacca: 'restlessness', belongs to the 10 mental chains samyojana, and to the 5 hindrances nīvarana. It is one of those 4 mental properties inseparably associated with all disadvantageous consciousness akusala-sādhārana. Cf. Tab. II.

Uddhambhāgiya-samyojana: the 5 'higher mental chains'; see: samyojana

Uddhamsota-akanitthagāmī: 'passing upstream to the highest gods', is one of the 5 kinds of Non-returners anāgāmī.

Uggaha-nimitta: s. nimitta.

Ugghatitaññu: 'one who already during a given explanation comes to penetrate the truth' Pug.. This is one of four types of persons classified according to their ability of acquiring insight, mentioned in A. IV, 133. Cf. also vipacitaññū, neyya, pada-parama See The Requisites of Enlightenment, by Ledi Sayadaw WHEEL 171/174 p. 1ff.

UJukatā: kāya-, citta-: 'uprightness' of mental properties and of consciousness, is associated with all pure consciousness. Cf. Tab. II.

Unconditioned: the: asankhata- Contemplation of the u. = animitta see: vipassanā

Unconscious beings: asaññā-satta

Understanding: s. ditthi, ñāna, paññā, pariññā - Right u., magga 1. sacca IV.1.

Unit: s. kalāpa rūpa-kalāpa

Unprepared: unprompted: see: asankhārika-citta

Unshakable deliverance: s. ceto-vimutti.

Unshakable one: the: akuppa-dhamma

Unthinkable things: the 4: acinteyya

Disadvantageous: kammically: akusala

Upacāra: 'moment of access'; see: javana.

Upacāra-samādhi: 'neighbourhood or access-concentrationn', is the degree of concentration just before entering any of the absorptions, or jhānas It still belongs to the sense-sphere kāmāvacara see: avacara.

Upacaya: rūpassa: 'growth of materiality'; see: khandha I; App.

Upacchedaka-kamma: 'destructive kamma'; see: kamma.

Upādāna: 'clinging', according to Vis.M XVII, is an intensified degree of craving tanhā. The 4 kinds of clinging are: sense-clinging kāmupādāna, clinging to views ditthupādāna clinging to mere rules and ritual sīlabbatupādāna, clinging to the personality-belief atta-vādupādāna.

1;What now is the sense-clinging? Whatever with regard to sense-objects there exists of sense-lust, sense-desire, sense-attachment, sense-passion, sense-confusedness, sense-mental chains: this is called sense-clinging.

2 ''What is the clinging to views? 'Food and offerings are useless; there is no fruit and result for good and bad deeds: all such view and wrong conceptions are called the clinging to views.

3;What is the clinging to mere rules and ritual? The holding firmly to the view that through mere rules and ritual one may reach purification: this is called the clinging to mere rules and ritual.

4;What is the clinging to the personality-belief? The 20 kinds of ego-views with regard to the groups of existence see: sakkāya-ditthi these are called the clinging to the personality-belief; Dhs. 1214-17.

This traditional fourfold division of clinging is not quite satisfactory. Besides kamupādāna we should expect either rūpupādāna and arūpupādāna or simply bhavupādāna Though the Anāgāmī is entirely free from the traditional 4 kinds of upādāna he is not freed from rebirth, as he still possesses bhavupādāna The Com. to Vis.M XVII, in trying to get out of this dilemma, explains kāmupādāna as including here all the remaining kinds of clinging.

Clinging' is the common rendering for u., though 'grasping' would come closer to the literal meaning of it, which is 'uptake'; see: Three Cardinal Discourses WHEEL 17, p.19.

upādāna-khandha: the 5 'groups of clinging', or more clearly stated in accordance with Vis.M, 'the 5 groups of existence which form the objects of clinging'. Cf. M. 44, and see khandha

Upādā-rūpa: 'derived materiality', signifies the 24 secondary material phenomena dependent on the 4 primary physical elements, i.e. the sense-organs and sense-objects, etc. See khandha I; App.

Upadhi: 'substratum of existence'. In the Com. there are enumerated 4 kinds: the 5 groups khandha, sense-desire kāma mental defilements kilesa,, kamma. In the suttas it occurs frequently in Sn. vv. 33, 364, 546, 728, and, with reference to Nibbāna, in the phrase;the abandoning of all substrata; sabbūpadhi-patinissagga D. 14. See viveka 3.

Upādi: lit. 'something which one grasps, to which one clings, i.e. the 5 groups of existence khandha. In the suttas, the word is mostly used in such expressions as;One of the 2 fruits may be expected: either perfect understanding or, if the groups are still remaining sati upādi-sese 'if there is a remainder of groups, Anāgāmīship; D. 22. Further A. IV. 118:;Here the Perfect One has passed into the Nibbāna-element in which no more groups are remaining anupādi-sesa Cf. nibbāna upādinna-rūpa: 'kammically acquired materiality', or 'matter clung-to by kamma', is identical with kamma-produced materiality kammaja-rūpa, see: samutthāna In Vis.M XIV it is said:;That materiality which, later on, we shall refer to as 'kamma-produced' kammaja is, for its being dependent on previous pre-natal kamma, called 'kammically acquired'. '' The term upādinna occurs so in the suttas, e.g. M. 28 WHEEL 101, 62, 140. See Dhs. §990; Khandha Vibh.

UPaghātaka-kamma: 'destructive kamma'; see: kamma.

Upahacca-parinibbāyī: 'one who reaches Nibbāna within the first half of life', is one of the 5 kinds of Anāgāmī.

Upakkilesa: 'impurities', corruptions, imperfections a frequent rendering by 'defilements' is better reserved for kilesa.

A list of 16 moral 'impurities of the mind' cittassa upakkilesa is mentioned and explained in M. 7 & 8 WHEEI. 61/62: 1. covetousness and unrighteous greed abhijjhā-visamalobha 2. ill will vyāpāda. anger kodha 4. hostility upanāha. denigration makkha 6. domineering palāsa 7. envy issā 8. stinginess macchariya 9. hypocrisy māyā 0. fraud sātheyya 11. obstinacy thambha 12. presumption sārambha 13. conceit māna, 4. arrogance atimāna 5. vanity mada 16. negligence pamāda.

There are 3 groups of upakkilesa pertaining to meditation:

a 9 mental imperfections occurring in 'one devoted to higher mental training' adhicitta; 3 coarse ones - evil conduct in deeds, words and thoughts; 3 medium - thoughts of sensual desire, ill will and cruelty; 3 subtle - thoughts about one's relatives, one's country and one's reputation A. III, 100.

b 18 imperfections in the practice of awareness or mindfulness of breathing ānāpāna-sati, mentioned in Pts.M., Ānāpāna-kathā tr. in Mindfulness of Breathing, by ñānamoli Thera p. 60; BPS.

c 10 'imperfections of insight' -meditation, vipassanūpakkilesa see: visuddhi V.

Upanissaya-paccaya: 'decisive support' or 'inducement', is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Upapajja-vedanīya-kamma: 'kamma ripening in the next birth'; see: kamma.

Upapatti-bhava: 'rebirth-process'; see: bhava

Upapīlaka-kamma: 'suppressive kamma'; see: kamma.

Upāsaka: lit. 'sitting close by', i.e. a 'lay adherent', is any lay follower who is filled with faith and has taken refuge in the Buddha, his doctrine and his community of Noble Disciples A. VIII, 25. His virtue is regarded as pure if he observes the 5 Precepts pañca-sīla see: sikkhāpada He should avoid the following wrong ways of livelihood: trading in arms, in living beings, meat, alcohol and poison A. V, 177. See also A. VIII, 75.

Upasamānussati: 'recollection of the peace of Nibbāna', is the last of the 10 recollections anussati.;Whatsoever, o Bhikkhus, there are of things, as highest of them is considered detachment virāga i.e. the crushing of conceit, the stilling of thirst, the uprooting of clinging, the breaking through the round of rebirths, cessation of craving, detachment, ceasing, Nibbāna; A. IV, 34.

Upāsikā: 'female adherent'; see: upāsaka.

Upatthambhaka-kamma: 'supportive kamma'; see: kamma.

Upavicāra: s. manopavicāra

Upekkhā: 'equanimity', also called tatra-majjhattatā, is an ethical quality belonging to the sankhāra group see: khandha and should therefore not be confounded with indifferent feeling adukkha-m-asukhā vedanā which sometimes also is called upekkhā see: vedanā

upekkhā is one of the 4 sublime abodes brahma-vihāra, and of the factors of enlightenment bojjhanga. See Vis.M IV, 156ff.

Upekkhā-ñāna: = sankhārupekkhā-ñāna

Upekkhā-sambojjhanga: 'equanimity as link to Awakening'; see: bojjhanga

Upekkhā-sukha: 'equanimous happiness,' is the feeling of happiness accompanied by a high degree of equanimity upekkhā as, e.g. in the 3rd absorption jhāna.

Upekkhā-vedanā: s. vedanā.

Upekkhindriya: the 'ability of indifference', is one of the 5 elements of feeling M. 115 and therefore not to be confounded with the ethical quality 'equanimity', also called upekkhā

Upekkhopavicāra: 'indulging in indifference'; see: manopavicāra

Uposatha: lit. 'fasting', i.e. 'fasting day', is the full-moon day, the new-moon day, and the two days of the first and last moonquarters. On full-moon and new-moon days, the Disciplinary Code, the pātimokkha is read before the assembled community of Bhikkhus Bhikkhu while on the mentioned 4 moon-days many of the faithful lay devotees go to visit the monasteries, and there take upon themselves the observance of the 8 rules attha-sīla; sikkhāpada See A. VIII, 41ff.

Uprightness: ujukatā

Upstream to the highest gods: passing: see: anāgāmī.

Usages: the 4 noble: ariya-vamsa

Utu: temperature, heat, is identical with the heat-element tejodhātu.

Utu-samutthāna: - utuja-rūpa: 'materiality produced by temperature'; samutthāna

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