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Vācā: 'speech'. On right sp., see: magga 3, sacca IV.3. - Low talk, see: tiracchāna-kathā.

Vacī-kamma: 'verbal action'; see: kamma, kamma-patha.

Vacī-sankhāra: 'verbal kamma-construction', or 'verbal function'.

1: For verbal kamma-construction, see: sankhāra I. 1.

2: For verbal function of mind, i.e. thought-conception and discursive thinking, see: sankhāra I. 2.

Vacī-viññatti: see: viññatti.

Vanishing: Contemplation of: vayānupassanā is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight vipassāna.

Vanishing and reappearing: knowledge of the v. and r. of beings according to kamma, is identical with the divine eye see: abhiññā 5.

Vāritta-sīla: 'morality consisting in avoiding' evil things, as distinguished from 'morality consisting in performing' good things. See caritta-varitta.

Vasī: 'mastery'. Vis.M IV speaks of 5 kinds of m., which anyone who wishes to develop the absorptions jhāna should acquire first of all, with regard to the 1st absorption, namely: mastery in adverting to it āvajjana-vasī in entering it samāpajjana-vasī in determining it adhitthāna-vasī in rising therefrom vutthāna-vasī in retrospection paccavekkhana-vasī - App..

If wherever, whenever, and for whatever duration desired, one enters the 1st absorption, and at one's entering it, no slowness is experienced, this is called mastery in entering the absorption, etc. In an analogous way, the 4 remaining kinds are to be explained; Vis.M IV, 131f; XXIII, 27ff..

Vatta: 1. 'round', 2. 'round of rebirths'.

1: With reference to the dependent origination paticcasamuppāda, Vis.M XVII speaks of 3 rounds: the kamma round kamma-vatta comprising the kammic-constructions and the kammaprocess 2nd and 10th links; the round of defilements kilesa-vatta comprising ignorance, craving and clinging 1st, 8th and 9th links; the round of results vipāka-vatta comprising consciousness, mind and materiality, 6 bases, contact, feeling 3rd-7th links. Cf. paticcasamuppāda diagram.

2 round of rebirth = samsāra

Vatthu: 'physical base', i.e. the 6 physical organs on which the mental process is based, are the 5 physical sense-organs and, according to the Com., the heart hadaya-vatthu, as the 6th. This 6th vatthu must not be confounded with the 6th āyatana which is a collective name for all consciousness whatever. - App..

Vatthu-kāma: 'objective sensuality', the 5 sense-objects; see: kāma.

Vavatthāna: 'determining', defining. In its application to insight meditation, this term occurred first in Pts.M. I, p. 53; but in a verbal form, as a past participle, already in M. 111: tyassa dhammā anupada-vavatthitā honti,these things the mental properties were determined by him i.e. Sāriputta successively; see: Abh. St., p. 54. In Vis.M XX, 130, it is said: 'The determining of the truth of suffering is effected with the determining of mind-and-body in the purification of view see: visuddhi III. The determining of the truth of origination is effected with the discerning of conditions in the purification by transcending doubt see: visuddhi IV. The determining of the truth of the path is effected by emphasis on the right path in the purification by knowledge and vision of what is path and not-path see: visuddhi. Thus the determining of the 3 truths suffering, origin, path has been first effected by means of mundane lokiya knowledge only.; - See sammasana, visuddhi.

For the determining of the 4 physical elements, see: dhātuvavatthāna.

Vayānupassanā: 'contemplation of vanishing', is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight vipassanā.

Vāyo-dhātu: 'wind-element'; see: dhātu

Vāyo-kasina: 'wind-kasina', is one of the kasina exercises kasina.

Vedanā: 'feeling', sensation, is the 2nd of the 5 groups of existence see: khandha II. According to its nature, it may be divided into 5 classes: 1 bodily pleasant feeling kāyikā sukhā-vedanā = sukha 2 bodily painful feeling kāyikā dukkhā-vedanā = dukkhā 3 mentally pleasant feeling cetasikā sukhā-vedanā = somanassa 4 mentally painful feeling cetasikā dukkhā-vedanā = domanassa 5 indifferent or neutral adukkha-m-asukhā vedanā = upekkhā.

With regard to the 6 senses, one distinguishes 6 kinds of feeling: feeling associated with seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, bodily contact and mental contact. The textual wording of it is 'feeling arisen through visual contact' cakkhu-samphassajā vedanā a href=http://www.what-buddha-said.net/library/buddhist-dictionary/dic2-abbrev.html#s. see: XXII, 55; D. 22, etc.

Feeling is one of the 7 mental properties inseparably associated with all consciousness whatever, see: nāma In the formula of the dependent origination paticcasamuppāda, feeling is the condition for the arising of craving tanhā The above-mentioned 5 kinds of feeling are enumerated amongst the 22 abilities indriya. - See M. 59; Contemplation of Feeling Vedanā Samyutta, by Nyanaponika Thera WHEEL 303/304.

Vedanānupassanā: 'contemplation of feeling', is one of the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness satipatthāna.

Vehapphala: is the name of a class of divine beings in the fine-material world; deva.

Verbal action: vacī-kamma see: kamma.

Verbal functions of mind: vacī-sankhāra see: sankhāra.

Vesārajja: 'self-confidence' of a Buddha is fourfold. He is confident: 1. to have attained to a perfect Enlightenment of which it cannot be said that it omits anything essential to it; 2. to have destroyed all fermentations āsava leaving none that can be said to be undestroyed by him; 3. that what were declared by him as obstacles to liberation are undeniably such; 4. that his teaching fulfils its purpose of actually leading to final liberation from suffering. See A. IV, 8; VII, 58; M. 12.

Vibhajja-vāda: 'analytical or discriminating doctrine' is an early name for the original Buddha doctrine, called Theravāda. - The term vibhajja-vādī occurs in M. 99 and A. X, 94, though not in the sense of a separate school, but as a characteristic of the Buddha himself:;Now, by blaming what is blamable and praising what is praiseworthy, the Blessed One is a 'discriminating teacher' vibhajja-vadī and is not one-sided in his teaching; A. X, 94.

Buddhaghosa, in the introduction to his Com. on the Kathāvatthu, says that in Asoka's time, when the Sangha prospered, many heretics took ordination as Buddhist Bhikkhus but continued to spread their wrong doctrines. For purifying the Sangha, Asoka, together with the venerable Moggaliputtatissa, summoned assembly of the Bhikkhus. When each of the assembled was individually questioned by the king about what the Buddha taught, those who said that he was an eternalist sassata-vadī etc. were expelled. The genuine Bhikkhus replied that the Buddha was a vibhajja-vadī an 'analyst' or 'discriminating teacher'; and when, on the king's question, Moggaliputtatissa confirmed that this was the correct view, those Bhikkhus were admitted to the Uposatha assembly of the Sangha, and from their midst the participants of the 3rd Council at Pataliputta were selected. - See Mahāvamsa, tr. by Wilh. Geiger, Ch. V, v. 268f.

Vibhava ditthi: = uccheda-ditthi see: ditthi.

Vibhava-tanhā: 'craving for non-existence', or for self-annihilation; see: tanhā.

Vicāra: 'discursive thinking'; see: vitakka-vicāra.

Vicikicchā: 'sceptical doubt', is one of the 5 mental hindrances nīvarana, and one of the 3 mental chains samyojana, which disappear for ever at Stream-entry, the first stage of Nobility see: ariya-puggala As a fetter, it refers to sceptical doubt about the Master the Buddha, the Teaching, the Sangha, and the training; about things past and future, and conditionality Dhs 1004; cf. A. X, 71. It also applies to uncertainty whether things are advantageous or not, to be practised or not, of high or low value, etc. According to Vis.M XIV, 177, vicikicchā is the lack of desire to think things out i.e. to come to a conclusion; vigata-cikicchā desiderative to Ö cit to think; it has the nature of wavering, and its manifestation is indecision and a divided attitude; its proximate cause is unwise attention to matters of doubt. It is associated with one of the 2 classes of disadvantageous consciousness rooted in confusion Tab. I, No. 32. - See also kankhā

View: right: sammā-ditthi see: ditthi magga 1, sacca IV, 1. - For wrong view, see: ditthi

Vigata-paccaya: 'disappearance', is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Vihāra: 'abode' There are 3 abodes: the divine abode dibba-vihāra the divine abode brahma-vihāra, the noble abode ariya-vihāra See A. III, 63; D. 33.

Vijjā: 'higher knowledge', gnosis. For the 3-fold k., see: abhiññā and te-vijjā Cf. foll.

Vijjā-carana: knowledge and conduct'. This expression occurs in those passages in the suttas where the qualities of a Buddha are described, namely: Truly, the Blessed One is holy, is fully enlightened, perfect in knowledge and conduct...; According to Vis.M VII, 1 and D. 3, knowledge vijjā refers here either to the 3-fold knowledge see: te-vijjā or to the 8 kinds of knowledge, namely: the 6 higher spiritual powers abhiññā, insight vipassanā, and magical power iddhi, whilst conduct carana refers to 15 things: moral restraint, watching over the sense-doors, moderation in eating, wakefulness, faith, moral shame, Fear of Wrongdoing, great learning, energy, awareness or mindfulness, understanding and the 4 absorptions.

Vikkhambhana-pahāna: 'overcoming by repression' or 'suspension', is one of the 5 kinds of overcoming pahāna.

Vikubbanā-iddhi: the 'power of transconstruction', is one of the magical abilities iddhi.

Vimamsā: 'investigation, inquiry, pondering', is one of the 4 roads to power iddhi-pāda and one of the 4 factors of predominance see: paccaya 3.

Vimokkha: 'liberation' deliverance. I. the 3; II. the 8.

I. The 3 liberations are: 1. the conditionless or signless liberation animitta-v 2. the desireless liberation apanihita-v. the emptiness or void liberation suññatā -v They are also called 'the triple gateway to liberation' vimokkha-mukha Vis.M XXI, 66ff, as they are three different approaches to the paths of Nobility. - See visuddhi VI, 8. Cf. Vis XXI, 6ff, 121ff; Pts.M. II. Vimokkha-Kathā.

1.;Whosoever being filled with determination adhimokkha, considers all constructions as impermanent anicca such a one attains the conditionless liberation. 2. Whosoever being filled with tranquillity, considers all constructions as painful dukkha such a one attains the desireless liberation. 3. Whosoever being filled with understanding, considers all constructions as without a self anattā such a one attains the emptiness liberation; Vis.M XXI, 70 = Pts.M. II, p. 58.

1 and 2 are mentioned and explained in M. 43, under the name of deliverances of mind ceto-vimutti. - 2 and 3 appear in Dhs 344ff, 353ff in the section on supra-mundane consciousness see Atthasālini Tr., p. 299ff.

II. The 8 liberations attha vimokkha occur frequently in the texts A. VIII, 66; D. 16, etc. and are described as follows:

There are 8 liberations, o Bhikkhus. Which are these?

1 ''Whilst remaining in the fine-material sphere rūpī one perceives material forms: this is the first liberation.

2;Not perceiving corporcal forms on one's own person, one perceives corporcal forms externally: this is the 2nd liberation.

3 ''By thinking of the beautiful, one is filled with confidence: this is the 3rd liberation.

4;Through the total overcoming of the materiality-perceptions, the vanishing of the reflex-perceptions, and the non-attention to the multiformity-perceptions, with the idea 'Unbounded is space', one reaches the sphere of unbounded space ākāsānañcāyatana and abides therein: this is the 4th liberation.

5;Through the total overcoming of the sphere of unbounded space, and with the idea 'Unbounded is consciousness', one reaches the sphere of unbounded consciousness viññānañcāyatana and abides therein: this is the 5th liberation.

6;Through the total overcoming of the sphere of unbounded consciousness, and with the idea 'Nothing is there', one reaches the sphere of nothingness ākiñeaññāyatana and abides therein: this is the 6th liberation.

7;Through the total overcoming of the sphere of nothingness, one reaches the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception n'eva-saññā -nāsaññāyatana and abides therein: this is the 7th liberation.

8;Through the total overcoming of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, one reaches the ceasing of perception and feeling see: nirodha-samāpatti this is the 8th liberation.

These, o Bhikkhus, are the 8 kinds of liberation

For 1-3, see: abhibhāyatana for 4-7, see: jhāna for 8, see: nir odha-samāpatti.

By 3 is meant the attainment of the fine-material absorptions jhāna by means of concentrating the mind on perfectly pure and bright colours as objects of the kasina. According to Pts.M. this mental state is produced also by concentrating the mind on the 4 sublime states, i.e. all-embracing kindness, Pity, sympathetic joy and equanimity, in consequence of which allbeings appear perfectly pure and glorified, and thus the mind turns to the beautiful.

See Pts.M. II, Vimokkha-kathā; Atthasālini Tr., p. 255; App.

Vimutti: 'deliverance', is of 2 kinds: deliverance of mind ceto-vimutti and deliverance through understanding paññā-vimutti.

'Deliverance of mind', in the highest sense, is that kind of concentration samādhi which is bound up with the path of Arahatship arahatta-magga deliverance through understanding' is the knowledge ñāna bound up with the fruition of Arahatship arahatta-phala Cf. A. V, 142.

There are also 5 kinds of deliverance, identical with the 5 kinds of overcoming pahāna,.

Vinipāta: 'world of suffering', is another name for the 4 woeful courses duggati, see: gati of existence, and for the 4 lower worlds apāya.

The Stream-Winner sotāpanna is no longer subject to rebirth in them avinipāta-dhamma.

Viññāna: 'consciousness', is one of the 5 groups of existence aggregates or clusters;khandha, one of the 4 nutriments āhāra, the 3rd link of the dependent origination paticcasamuppāda, the 5th in the sixfold division of elements dhātu.

Viewed as one of the 5 groups khandha it is inseparably linked with the 3 other mental groups feeling, perception and constructions and furnishes the bare cognition of the object, while the other 3 contribute more specific functions. Its ethical and kammic character, and its greater or lesser degree of intensity and clarity, are chiefly determined by the mental constructions associated with it.

Just like the other groups of existence, consciousness is a flux viññāna-sotā, stream of c.' and does not constitute an abiding mind-substance; nor is it a transmigrating entity or soul. The 3 characteristies see: ti-lakkhana impermanence, suffering and no-self, are frequently applied to it in the texts e.g., in the Anattalakkhana Sutta, S.XXII, 59. The Buddha often stressed that;apart from conditions, there is no arising of consciousness' M 38; and all these statements about its nature hold good for the entire range of consciousness, be it;past, future or presently arisen, gross or subtle, in oneself or external, inferior or lofty, far or near; see: XXII, 59.

According to the 6 senses it divides into 6 kinds, viz. eye or visual consciousness cakkhu-v etc. About the dependent arising of these 6 kinds of consciousness, Vis.M XV, 39 says: 'Conditioned through the eye, the visible object, light and attention, visual-consciousness arises. Conditioned through the ear, the audible object, the ear-passage and attention, ear-consciousness arises. Conditioned, through the nose, the olfactive object, air and attention, nose-consciousness arises. Conditioned through the tongue, the gustative object, humidity and attention, tongue-consciousness arises. Condlitioned through the body, bodily contact, the earth-element and attention, body-consciousness arises. Conditioned through the subconscious mind bhavanga-mano the mental-object and attention, mind-consciousness arises

The Abhidhamma literature distinguishes 89 crasses of consciousness, being either kammically advantageous, disadvantageous or neutral, and belonging either to the sense-sphere, the fine-material or the immaterial sphere, or to supra-mundane consciousness. See Table I.

Viññāna-kicca: 'functions of consciousness', as exercised within a process of consciousness or cognitive series cittavīthi In the Abhidhamma Com. and Vis.M XIV the following functions are mentioned: rebirth patisandhi subconsciousness bhavanga, directing āvajjana seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, body-consciousness; recciving sampaticchana investigating santīrana determining votthapana, impulsion javana registering tadārammana dying cuti.

A single unit of sense-perception e.g. visual consciousness, being conditioned through a sense-organ and its corresponding object, forms in reality an extremely complex process, in which all the single phases of consciousness follow one upon another in rapid succession, while performing their respective functions, e.g.:

As soon as a visible object has entered the range of vision, it acts on the sensitive eye-organ cakkhu-pasāda and conditioned thereby an excitation of the subconscious stream bhavanga-sota takes place.

As soon, however, as subconsciousness is broken off, the functional mind-element see: Tab. I, 70, grasping the object and breaking through the subconscious stream, performs the function of 'adverting' the mind towards the object āvajjana.

Immediately thereupon there arises at the eye-door, and based on the sensitive eye-organ, the visual-consciousness, while performing the function of 'seeing' dassana... Immediately thereafter there arises the mind-element Tab

I, 39, 55 performing the function of 'receiving' sampaticchana the object of that consciousness.

''Immediately thereafter there arises... the mind-consciousness-element Tab. I, 40, 41, 56, while 'investigating' santirana the object received by the mind-element...

Immediately thereafter there arises the functional, rootless mind-consciousness-element Tab. I, 71, accompanied by indifference, while performing the function of 'determining' votthapana the object. ..

Now, if the object is large, then immediately afterwards there flash forth 6 or 7 'impulse moments' javana-citta, constituted by one of the 8 advantageous, or 12 disadvantageous, or 9 functional classes of consciousness Tab. I, 1-8; 22-23; 72-80.

''Now, if at the end of the impulse moments, the object at the five-sense doors is very large, and at the mind-door clear, then there arises, once or twice, one of the 8 root-accompanied, kamma-resultant classes of consciousness Tab. I, 42-49 of the sense-sphere, or one of the 3 rootless kamma-resultant mind-consciousness-elements Tab. I, 40, 41, 56.  Because this consciousness after the vanishing of the impulse moments, possesses the ability continuing with the object of the subconsciousness, taking the object of the subconsciousness as its own object, therefore it is called 'registering' tadārarmmana lit. 'that object', or 'having that as object'; Vis.M XIV, 115ff.

If, however, the sense-object is weak, then it reaches merely the stage of 'impulsion'javana or of 'determining' votthapana if very weak, only an excitation ot the subconsciousness takes place.

The proeess of the inner or mind-consciousness, i.e. without participation of the 5 physical senses, is as follows: in the case that the mind-objeet entering the mind-door is distinct, then it passes through the stages of 'directing at the mind-door' manodvārāvajjana the 'impulse stage' and the 'registering stage', before finally sinking into the subconscious stream. - App.: citta-vīthi.

Literature: Aids to the Abhidhamma Philosophy, by Dr. C.B Dharmasena with colour chart of the Cognitive Series; WHEEL 63/64. - The Psychology and Philosophy of Buddhism, by Dr. W. F. Javasuriya Buddhist Missionary Socy., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Viññānañcāyatana: 'sphere of Infinite consciousn is a name for the 2nd meditiative absorption in the immateria sphere see: jhāna 6.

Viññāna-tthiti: 'abodes or supports of consciousness'. The texts describe 7 such abodes e.g. A. VII, 41:

1: There are beings who are different in body and different in perception, such as men, some divine beings, and some beings living in states of suffering see: apāya. This is the 1st abode of consciousness.

2: There are beings who are different in body but equal in perception, such as the first-born gods of the Brahmaworld see: deva II. This is the 2nd abode of consciousness.

3: There are beings who are equal in body but different in perception, such as the Radiant Gods ābhassara-deva This is the 3rd abode of consciousness.

4: There are beings who are equal in body and equal in perception, such as the All-illuminating Gods subhakinha-deva This is the 4th abode of consciousness.

5: There are beings... reborn in the sphere of Infinite space. This is the 5th abode of consciousness.

6: There are beings... reborn in the sphere of Infinite consciousness. This is the 6th abode of consciousness.

7: There are beings... reborn in the sphere of nothingness. This is the 7th abode of consciousnes

About the 3 last-named spheres, see: jhāna 5-7. Cf. sattāvāsa.

In D. 33 there are mentioned 4 viññāna-tthiti apparently in the sense of 'bases' of consciousness, namely: materiality, feeling, perception, mental constructions, which in see: XXII, 53 are further explained.

Viññatti: lit. 'making known' 'intimation', is an Abhidhamma term for bodily expression kāya-viññatti and verbal expression vacī-viññatti both belonging to the materiality-group. They are produced by the co-nascent intention, and are therefore, as such, purely physical and not to be confounded with kamma, which as such is something mental. Cf. Kath. 80, 100, 101, 103, 194 see: Guide V. - App..

One speaks of 'bodily expression', because it makes known an intention by means of bodily movement, and can itself be understood by the bodily movement which is said to be material.

'Verbal expression' is so called because it makes known an intention by means of a speech-produced noise; Vis.M XIV.

Vipacitaññu: or vipañcitaññu 'one who realizes the truth after explanation.' Thus is called one who realizes the truth only after detailed explanation of that which already had been said to him in a concise form. Cf. ugghatitaññu.

Vipāka: 'kamma-result' or 'effect of action', is any kammically morally neutral mental phenomenon e.g. bodily pleasant or painful feeling, sense-consciousness, etc., which is the result of advantageous or disadvantageous intentional action kamma through body, speech or mind, done either in this or some previous life. Totally wrong is the belief that, according to Buddhism, everything is the result of previous action. Never, for example, is any kammically advantageous or disadvantageous intentional action the result of former action, being in reality itself kamma. On this subject see: titthāyatana kamma, Tab. I; Fund II. Cf. A. III, 101; Kath. 162 Guide, p. 80.

Kamma-produced kammaja or kamma-samutthāna material things are never called kamma-vipāka as this term may be applied only to mental phenomena.

Vipāka-paccaya: 'kamma-result condition' is one of the 24 conditions paccaya,.

Vipallāsa: 'perversions' or 'distortions'. - ''There are 4 perversions which may be either of perception saññā-vipallāsa of consciousness citta v or of views ditthi-v And which are these four? To regard what is impermanent anicca as permanent; what is painful dukkha as pleasant or happiness-yielding; what is without a self anattā as a self; what is impure ugly: asubha as pure or beautiful'' A. IV, 49. - See Manual of Insight, by Ledi Sayadaw WHEEL 31/32. p.5.

Of the perversions, the following are eliminated by the 1st path-knowledge sotāpatti the perversions of perception, consciousness and views, that the impermanent is permanent and what is not a self is a self; further, the perversion of views that the painful is pleasant, and the impure is pure. By the 3rd path-knowledge anāgāmitā are eliminated: the perversions of perception and consciousness that the impure is pure. By the 4th path-knowledge arahatta are eliminated the perversions of perception and consciousness that the painful is pleasant; Vis.M XXII, 68.

Viparināmānupassanā: 'contemplation of change' of all things, is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight vipassanā.

Vipassanā: 'insight', is the intuitive light flashing forth and exposing the truth of the impermanency, the suffering and the impersonal and unsubstantial nature of all material and mental phenomena of existence. It is insight-understanding vipassanā-paññā that is the decisive liberating factor in Buddhism, though it has to be developed along with the 2 other trainings in morality and concentration. The culmination of insight practice see: visuddhi VI leads directly to the stages of Nobility see: visuddhi VII.

Insight is not the result of a mere intellectual understanding, but is won through direct meditative observation of one's own bodily and mental processes. In the commentaries and the Vis.M, the sequene in developing insight-meditation is given as follows: 1. discernment of the material rūpa. of the mental nāma. contemplation of both nāma-rūpa i.e. of their pairwise occurrence in actual events, and their interdependence, 4. both viewed as conditioned application of the dependent origination, paticcasamuppāda 5. application of the 3 characteristics impermanency, etc. to mind-and-body-cum-conditions.

The stages of gradually growing insight are described in the 9 insight-knowledges vipassanā-ñāna constituting the 6th stage of purification: beginning with the 'knowledge of rise and fall' and ending with the 'adaptation to Truth'. For details, see visuddhi VI and Vis.M XXI.

Eighteen chief kinds of insight-knowledge or principal insights, mahā-vipassanā are listed and described in Vis.M XXII, 113: 1: contemplation of impermanence aniccānupassanā 2: of suffering dukkhānupassanā 3: of no self anattānupnupassanā 4: of aversion nibbidānupassanā 5: of detachment virāgānupassanā 6: of ceasing nirodhānupassanā 7: of abandoning patinissaggānupassanā 8: of waning khayānupassanā 9: of vanishing vayānupassanā 10: of change viparināmānupassanā 11: of the unconditioned or signless, animittānupassanā 12: of desirelessness apanihitānupassanā 13: of emptiness suññatāupassanā 14: insight into phenomena which is higher understanding adhipaññā-dhamma-vipassanā 15: knowledge and vision according to reality yathā-bhūta-ñānadassana 16: experience of Danger or danger, ādīnavānupassanā 17: reflecting contemplation patisankhānupassanā 18: contemplation of turning away vivattanānupassanā.

Through these 18, the adverse ideas and views are overcome, for which reason this way of overcoming is called 'overcoming by the opposite' tadanga-pahāna overcoming this factor by that. Thus 1 dispels the idea of permanence. 2 the idea of happiness, 3 the idea of self, 4 lust, 5 greed, 6 origination, 7 grasping, 8 the idea of compactness, 9 kamma-accumulation, 10 the idea of lastingness, 11 the conditions, 12 delight, 13 adherence, 14 grasping and adherence to the idea of substance, 15 attachment and adherence, 17 thoughtlessness, 18 dispels entanglement and clinging.

Insight may be either mundane lokiya or supra-mundane lokuttara. supra-mundane insight is of 3 kinds: 1 joined with one of the 4 supra-mundane paths, 2 joined with one of the fruitions of these paths, 3 regarding the ceasing, or rather suspension, of consciousness see: nirodha-samāpatti.

See: samatha-vipassanā visuddhi III-VII.

Literature: Manual of Insight, by Ledi Sayadaw WHEEL 31/32. Practical Insight Meditation, Progress of Insight, both by Mahāsi Sayadaw BPS. The Experience of Insight, by Joseph Goldstein BPS.

Vipassanā-yānika: = sukha-vipassaka

Vipassanūpakkilesa: 'imperfections of insight'; see: visuddhi.

Vipatti: 'aberration' or 'deviation', may be: deviation from morality sīla-vipatti or deviation from understanding ditthivipatti.

To deviate in deeds, or in words, or in both actions and words: this is called deviation from morality.

'Food and offerings are useless, there is no fruit and result of good and bad actions, there are no such things as this and the next life'.  Such wrong views are called deviation from understanding.; Pug. 67, 68

Vippayutta-paccaya: 'dissociation', is one of the 24 conditions paccaya.

Virāga: 'disillusion' or 'fading away', detachment; absence of lust, dispassionateness. Appears frequently together with nirodha 'cessation' 1 as a name for Nibbāna, 2 in the contemplations a forming the 4th tetrad in the exercises in awareness or mindfulness of breathing see: ānāpānasati 14, b of the 18 principal insights No. 5; see: vipassanā

According to Com., it may mean 1 the momentary destruction of phenomena, or 2 the ultimate 'fading away', i.e. Nibbāna. In the aforementioned two contemplations, it means the understanding of both, and the path attained by such understanding.

Virāgānupassanā: see: prec.

Virati: the 3 'abstentions' or abstinences, are: abstention from wrong speech, wrong bodily action and wrong livelihood; corresponding to right speech, action and livelihood of the 8-fold path see: magga 3-5. By abstention is not simply meant the non-occurrence of the evil things in question, but the deliberate abstaining therefrom, whenever occasion arises. They belong to the 'secondary' not constant mental concomitants obtaining in lofty consciousness see: Tab. II.. Cf. sīla

Virility: see: bhāva.

Viriya: 'energy', lit. 'virility', 'manliness' or 'heroism' from vīra man, hero; Lat. vir cf. virtus is one of the 5 spiritual abilities and powers see: bala one of the 7 factors of enlightenment see: bojjhanga and identical with right effort of the 8-fold path see: magga For further explanations, see: padhāna

Viriya-sambojjhanga: 'energy as link to Awakening', is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment bojjhanga.

Virtue: see: sīla

Visesa-bhāgiya-sīla: -samādhi-Paññā : morality concentration, understanding connected with progress'. For details, see: hānabhāgiya-sīla.

Visible object: see: āyatana

Visuddhi: 'purification', purity. The '7 stages of purification' satta-visuddhi form the substructure of Upatissa's Vimutti-Magga The path To Freedom, preserved only in Chinese, as well as of Buddhaghosa's monumental work, visuddhi-magga The path of Purification, based on the former work.

The only place in the Canon where these 7 kinds of purification are mentioned is M. 24,,The Simile of the Stage-coach; see: 'path', §64, wherein their purpose and goal are illustrated. There it is said that the real and ultimate goal does not consist in purification of morality, or of mind, or of view, etc., but in total deliverance and ceasing. Now, just as one mounts the first coach and travels to the second coach, then mounts the second coach and travels with it to the third coach, etc., in exactly the same way the goal of I the purification of morality sila-visuddhi is II the purification of mind citta-visuddhi its goal: III the purification of view ditthi-visuddhi its goal: IV the purification by overcoming doubt kankhāvitarana-visuddhi its goal: V the purification by knowledge and vision of what is path and not-path maggāmagga-ñānadassana-visuddhi its goal: VI the purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress patipadā-ñānadassana-visuddhi; its goal: VII the purification of knowledge and vision ñānadassana-visuddhi but the goal of this purification is deliverance freed from all clinging.

I: Purification of morality sīla-visuddhi consists of the 4-fold purity of morality catu-pārisuddhi-sīla namely: restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code pātimokkhasamvara-sīla sense-restraint indriysamvara-sīla purity of livelihood ājīvapārisuddhi-sīla morality with regard to the 4 requisites paccaya-sannissita-sīla Vis.M XVIII. On these 4 terms, see: sīla- In the case of a layman, it entails the observance of whatever moral rules 5 or more he has taken upon himself.

II: Purification of mind citta-visuddhi is a name for the 8 attainments = absorptions: jhāna, as well as for neighbourhood-concentration upacāra-samādhi, see: samādhi. ib..

III: By purification of view ditthi-visuddhi is meant the understanding, according to reality, of mind and materiality nāma-rūpa... which is founded on unconfusedness understanding as base, and which in many ways determines mind and materiality after overcoming all belief in a persollality attā self, ego..; ib..

IV:By purification by overcoming doubt kankhā-vitarana-visuddhi is meant the understanding which, by grasping the conditions of this mind and materiality, has escaped from all doubt with regard to the 3 times past, present, future.; ib. XIX

V: By purification by knowledge and vision of what is path and not-path maggāmagga-ñānadassana-visuddhi is meant that understanding which knows the right path from the wrong path: 'This is the right path, that the wrong path.'ib. XX

In order to attain this 5th stage of purification, one at first should develop methodical insight naya-vipassanā i.e. through contemplation of the 5 groups of existence khandha. For whosoever does not yet possess a perfectly developed insight, to him such phenomena as effulgence of light, etc. see below, arising during insight, may become impediments in the 3 kinds of full understanding here considered see: pariññā

'As soon as the many ways and characteristics of the 4 Truths sacca and the dependent origination paticcasamuppāda have become clear to the meditating disciple, he says to himself: Thus do these things never before arisen arise, and having arisen they disappear again. Thus do the constructions of existence ever and again arise as something quite new. But not only are they something new, they are moreover also of limited duration, like a dew-drop at sunrise, like a bubble, like a line drawn with a stick in the water, like a mustard seed placed on the point of an arrow, or like a flash of lightning. Also as something unsubstantial and empty do they appear, as jugglery, as a mirage.  Merely something subject to vanishing arises, and having arisen disappears again.

During such insight practice, however, may arise the 10 imperfections or defilements of insight vipassanūpakkilesa effulgence of light obhāsa knowledge ñāna rapture pīti tranquillity passaddhi happiness sukha determination adhimokkha energy paggaha awareness upatthāna delight nikanti - See Vis.M XX, 105f. App..

Excepting the last one, 'delight', they are not imperfections or defilements in themselves, but may become a basis for them through the arising of pride or delight or by a wrong conclusion that one of the Noble paths has been attained. He, however, who is watchful and experienced in insight practice, will know that these states of mind do not indicate attainment of the true path, but are only symptoms or concomitants of insight meditation.

Thus far the meditating disciple has determined 3 of the truths, namely while determining the material and mental phenomena he has, through purification of view ditthi-visuddhi determined the 'truth of suffering'. While grasping the conditions he has, through purification by overcoming doubt kankhā-vitarana-visuddhi determined the 'truth of the origin of suffering'. While determining the right path, he has, through purification by knowledge and vision of what is path and not-path maggāmagga-ñānadassana-visuddhi, determined the 'truth of the path' leading to the ceasing of suffering

VI: Purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress patipadā-ñānadassana-visuddhi is the insight perfected in 8 kinds of knowledge, together with the 9th knowledge, the 'knowledge adapting itself to truth'.

By the 8 kinds of knowledge are here meant the following, which are freed from defilements, follow the right process, and are considered as insight, namely:

1. knowledge consisting in contemplation of rise and fall udayabbayānupassanā-ñāna,
2. in contemplation of dissolution bhangānupassanā-ñāna,
3. in awareness of terror or the fearful bhayatūpatthānā-ñāna,
4. in experience of Danger ādīnavānupassanā-ñāna,
5. in contemplation of aversion nibbidānupassanā-ñāna,
6. in the desire for deliverance muccitu-kamyatā-ñāna,
7. in reflecting contemplation patisankhānupassanā-ñāna,
8. in equanimity regarding all constructions of existence sankhārupekkhā-ñāna which is followed by
9. in adaptation to truth saccānulomika-ñāna.

1: Consists in the meditative observation of the 3 characteristics of existence impermanence, suffering, no self in one's own bodily and mental processes. As long as the mind is still disturbed by the 10 imperfections see: V, the 3 characteristics will not become fully clear in their true nature. Only when the mind is free from these imperfections can the characteristics be observed clearly.

2: When through such repeated practice, knowledge and awareness or mindfulness have grown keen and the bodily and mental constructions become apparent quickly, at that stage the phase of dissolution of these constructions will become prominent.

Consciousness with e.g. materiality as its object arises and dissolves. Having reflected on that object, he contemplates the dissolution of reflecting consciousness.; Pts.M. I, 57, quoted in Vis.M XXI, 11.

The 8 blessings of this knowledge are: abandoning the belief in eternal existence bhava-ditthi giving up attachment to life, constant right application of mind to meditative endeavour, a purified livelihood, overcoming of anxiety, absence of fear, acquisition of forbearance and gentleness, conquest of discontent and sensual delight Vis.M XXI, 28.

3: Knowledge consisting in awareness of terror or fearfulness is the seeing of terror in the conditions as well as the continuity of existence. For whoso considers the constructions as impermanent, to him the conditions of existence i.e. the kammic-constructions producing ever new existence appear as terror, as driving towards death. Whoso considers the constructions as misery, to him the continuity of existence appears as terror, as something oppressive. Whoso considers the constructions as impersonal, to him the kammaconstructions, as well as the continuity of existence, appear as terror, as an empty village, as a mirage, etc.

4: experience of Danger or danger is another aspect of the awareness of terror:,The origin of existence is terror... continuance of existence is terror... arising is suffering', such understanding in the awareness of terror is the knowledge of misery. 'Non-arising is bliss', this is knowledge of the peaceful state Pts.M. I, 59; that is, the no-more-arising is safety, is happiness, is Nibbāna.

5: Contemplation of aversion means: aversion for all constructions as terror, therefore its name 'awareness of terror' has come into use. Because it has made known the misery of all these constructions, therefore it has received the name of 'experience of Danger' ādīnavānupassanā Because it has arisen through aversion for those constructions, therefore it is known as 'contemplation of aversion' nibbidānupassanā.

6: Knowledge consisting in the desire for deliverance means: the desire for freedom and escape from all constructions of existence.. For feeling aversion for all constructions, becoming weary of them, finding no more delight in them, the mind does not cling to a single one of all these constructions.

7: Reflecting contemplation is the repeated meditative discernment of the constructions of existence, attributing to them the 3 characteristics of existence, with the desire to find deliverance from all forms of existence.

8: Equanimity regarding all constructions:;When the meditator through reflecting contemplation has discerned the constructions by applying the 3 characteristics to them and sees them as void, he abandons both terror and delight, and becomes indifferent and equanimous with regard to all constructions; he neither takes them as I nor as 'mine'; he is like a man who has divorced his wife; Vis.M XXI, 61.

Now, while continuing to contemplate the 3 characteristics of existence and perceiving the tranquil lot of Nibbāna as the peace, this equanimity-knowledge becomes the triple gateway to liberation. As it is said Pts.M. II, p. 48:

Three gateways to liberation vimokkha-mukha see. vimokkha I lead to escape from the world, namely: that the mind is contemplating all constructions as limited, and is rushing forward to the conditionless element animitta-dhātu that the mind is stirred with regard to all constructions of existence, and is rushing forward to the desireless element appanihita-dhātu that the mind sees all things as something foreign, and is rushing forward to the void element suññatā -dhātu.;

At this stage, and through the triple gateway, the diversification of path attainment takes place, according to the 7 kinds of noble persons ariya-puggala, on this see Vis.M XXI, 74ff.

The 6th, 7th and 8th knowledges, according to Vis.M XXI, form really only one single knowledge in its first, middle and final stages of development. This knowledge is also known as the 'insight leading to path ascent' vutthāna-gāminī-vipassanā .

9: Adaptation to truth or conformity with truth is called that knowledge which, while contemplating impermanency, etc. adapts itself to the preceding 8 kinds of insight-knowledge, as well as to the immediately following supra-mundane path and to the 37 elements pertaining to enlightenment bodhipakkhiya-dhamma. It is identical with adaptation-knowledge anulomañāna.

Whosoever has cultivated, developed, and frequently practised 'equanimity regarding all constructions' in him arises very strong faith known as determination adhimokkha-saddhā and his energy is better exerted, his awareness or mindfulness better established, his mind better concentrated, and a still stronger 'equanimity regarding the constructions' arises. 'Now the path will reveal itself', thus thinking, the meditator contemplates with his equanimity-knowledge all constructions as impermanent, etc., and thereafter that knowledge sinks into the subconscious stream of existence see: bhavanga-sotā Immediately afterwards there arises directing at the mind-door see: viññāna-kicca And just like equanimity-knowledge, the adaptation-knowledge, too, takes as its object the constructions, regarding them as something impermanent, miserable and impersonal. Thereupon, while continuing the uninterrupted continuity of consciousness citta-santati there arises the 1st impulse moment javana, called 'preparation' parikamma, taking the same constructions as object. Immediately thereafter, with the same constructions as object, there arises the 2nd impulse moment, known as 'access' upacāra And again immediately after that, there arises the impulse moment called 'adaptation' anuloma

VII: Purification of knowledge and vision ñānadassana-visuddhi is the knowledge associated with any of the 4 kinds of supra-mundane path-consciousness see: ariya-puggala.

Immediately upon this adaptation-knowledge there arises the 'change-of-lineage-knowlege' gotrabhū-ñāna see: gotrabhū taking as object the Unconditioned, the standstill of existence, the absence of becoming, cessation, Nibbāna, while at the same time transcending the rank gotta = gotra: lineage, designation and plane of the worldling puthujjana, and entering the rank, designation and plane of the Noble Ones ariya being the first turning towards Nibbāna as object, the first thinking of it, the first concentration on it, and the condition for the path... forming the culmination of insight, and never as such coming back again.

''As the immediate continuation following upon that change-of-lineage knowledge gotrabhū-ñāna there arises the first path-consciousness Stream-entrance forever destroying the first 3 of the 10 mental chains of existence samyojana, and closing the entrance to the lower worlds. Immediately after this path-knowledge, there arise, as its result, 2 or 3 path-produced states of consciousness, the fruitional consciousness phala-citta Immediately after the sinking of this consciousness into the subconscious stream of existence, the retrospective knowledge paccavekkhana-ñāna arises, having the path-consciousness as its object; Vis.M XXI. For the 3 higher paths, see: ariya-puggala.

Each of the 4 kinds of path-consciousness performs at the one and the same time 4 functions, namely: the function of full understanding pariññā of suffering, the function of overcoming pahāna the origin of suffering, the function of realizing sacchikiriyā the ceasing of suffering, the function of developing bhāvanā the supra-mundane Noble 8-fold path magga.

See path of Purification, by Buddhaghosa, tr. by ñyanamoli BPS; path of Freedom, by Upatissa BPS.

Vitakka: 'directed thought', 'thought-conception', is one of the 'secondary' not constant mental concomitants see: Tab. II., and may be either kammically advantageous, disadvantageous or neutral. -;There are 3 kammically disadvantageous akusala thoughts: sense-thought kāma-vitakka hating thought byāpāda-v and cruel thought vihimsa-v. There are 3 kammically advantageous kusala thoughts: thought of renunciation nekkhamma-v of hatelessness avyāpāda-v of not harming avihimsā-v The latter three constitute 'right thought', the 2nd link of the 8-fold path see: magga 2.

On the 'Removal of Distracting Thoughts' vitakka-santhāna see: M. 20 tr. in WHEEL 21.

Vitakka-vicāra: 'thought-conception and discursive thinking', or 'applied and sustained thought' are verbal functions vacī-sankhāra see: sankhāra of the mind, the so-called 'inner speech parole interieure They are constituents of the 1st absorption see: jhāna but absent in the higher absorptions.

1;Thought-conception vitakka is the laying hold of a thought, giving it attention. Its characteristic consists in fixing the consciousness to the object.

2;Discursive thinking vicāra is the roaming about and moving to and fro of the mind.  It manifests itself as continued activity of mind; Vis.M IV.

1 is compared with the striking against a bell, 2 with its resounding; 1 with the seizing of a pot, 2 with wiping it. Cf. Vis. IV..

Vitality: jīvitindriya see: indriya khandha materiality, mental constructions, Tab. II.

Vīthi = Citta-vīthi: 'process of consciousness'; see: viññānakicca.

Vivatta: 'absence of the cycle of existence' vatta, standstill of existence, is a name for Nibbāna see: nibbāna - App..

Vivatta-kappa: see: kappa

Vivattanānupassanā: 'contemplation of the turning away', is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight vipassanā. - App..

Viveka: 'isolation', seclusion, is according to Niddesa, of 3 kinds: 1 bodily detachment kāya-viveka i.e. abiding in solitude free from alluring sense-objects; 2 mental detachment citta-viveka i.e. the inner detachment from sense-things; 3 detachment from the substrata of existence upadhi-viveka.

In the description of the 1st absorption, the words;detached from sense-things; vivicc eva kāmehi refer, according to Vis.M IV, to 'bodily detachment'; the words;detached from kammically disadvantageous things; vivicca akusalehi dhammehi refer to 'mental detachment'; the words;born of detachment; vivekaja to the absence of the 5 hindrances.

Viveka-sukha: 'happiness of seclusion', or aloofness see: prec.;Whoso is addicted to society and worldly bustle, he will not partake of the happiness of renunciation, detachment, peace and enlightenment; A. VII, 86.

Vodāna: 'cleansing', may refer either to 1 morality sīla or 2 concentration samādhi or 3 understanding paññā.

1: Cleansing of morality takes place in 2 ways: by understanding the misery of moral deviation sīla-vipatti see. vipatti and by understanding the blessing of moral perfection sīla-sampatti see: Vis.M I.

2: Cleansing of concentration is concentration connected with progress visesa-bhāgiya-samādhi hāna-bhāgiya If, for example, one has entered the 1st absorption, and sense-perceptions and reflections arise, in that case there is concentration connected with decline... If, however, perceptions and reflections free from thought-conception and discursive thinking 2nd jhāna arise, in that case there is concentration connected with progress.

3: Cleansing, with reference to understanding, is identical with the 'insight leading to the path ascent' vutthāna-gāminī-vipassanā, which arises at the stage of 'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress' see: visuddhi VI, and is followed immediately by the change-of-lineage moment and the entrance into the supra-mundane paths.

Vohāra-desanā: 'conventional exposition', as distinguished from an explanation true in the highest sense paramattha-desanā. It is also called sammuti-sacca in Sanskrit samvrti App..

Void-deliverance: see: ceto-vimutti.

Vokāra: see: pañca-vokāra-bhava.

Intention: Cetanā

Votthapana-citta: 'determining consciousness', is that mindelement functioning independently of kamma; see: Tab. I, 70. which in the process of sense-perception performs the function of determining the sense-object. It is one of the 14 functions of consciousness viññāna-kicca.

Vutthāna-gāminī-vipassanā: 'insight leading to path ascent'. It is also called 'cleansing' vodāna, and according to Pts.M. II, 64, it is a name for 3 kinds of insight-knowledge, namely: knowledge consisting in the desire for deliverance muccitu-kamyatā-ñāna see: visuddhi VI 6; reflecting-contemplation-knowledge patisankhānupassanā-ñāna ib. VI, 7; and knowledge consisting in equanimity regarding all constructions sankhārupekkhā-ñāna see: visuddhi VI, 8.

It arises at the stage of 'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress' see: visuddhi VI, and is followed immediately by the change-of-lineage moment and the entrance into the supra-mundane paths.

'Ascent' vutthāna is the supra-mundane path see: ariya-puggala since it rises above the object forming the external foundation of insight; i.e. the external 5 groups of existence, in which object one's mind was absorbed, and also rises above one's own continuity one's own 5 groups of existence, or khandha together with its defilements. By reason of its leading upwards to the supra-mundane path, this insight is called 'ascending insight'. That it passes on to the path: that is the meaning implied; Vis.M XXI, 83f.. App..

Vyāpāda: 'ill-will', is a synonym of dosa see: mūla it is one of the 5 hindrances nīvarana and one of the 10 mental chains samyojana.

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