lit. 'the downward-path', the nether or infernal
world, usually translated by 'hell', is one of the 4 lower courses of existence (apāya).
The Buddhists are well aware that on account of the universal
sway of impermanence a life in hell, just as in heaven, cannot last eternally,
but will after exhaustion of the karma which has caused the respective form of
rebirth, necessarily be followed again by a new death and a new rebirth,
according to the stored-up karma.