The 24 modes of conditional relations in Buddhism are:
1. Root conditional relation: hetu paccaya
2. Object: árammana
3. Predominance: adhipati
4. Priority: anantara
5. Contiguity: samanantara
6. Co-nascence: sahajáta
7. Mutuality: aññamañña
8. Support: nissaya
9. Decisive Support: upanissaya
10. Pre-nascene: purejáta
11. Post-nascene: pacchájáta
12. Repitition: ásevana
13. Karma: kamma
14. Karma-result: vipáka
15. Nutriment: áhára
16. Faculty: indriya
18. Path: magga
19. Associaton: sampayutta
20. Dissociation: vippayutta
21. Presence: atthi
22. Absence: natthi
23. Disappearance: vigata
24. Non-disappearance: avigata
(1) Root-conditional relation (hetu-paccaya) is that conditional
relation that resembles
the root of a tree. Just as a tree rests on its root, and remains alive only
as long as its root is not destroyed, similarly all karmically advantageous and
disadvantageous mental states are entirely dependent on the simultaneity and
presence of their respective roots, i.e, of greed (lobha), hate
(dosa), delusion (moha), or greedlessness (alobha),
hatelessness (adosa), undeludedness (amoha). For the definition
of these 6 roots, s. múla.
"The roots are a conditional relation by way of root for the (mental)
phenomena associated with a root, and for the corporeal phenomena produced
thereby (e.g. for bodily expression)" .
(2) Object-conditional relation (árammana-paccaya) is called something which,
as object, forms the conditional relation for consciousness and mental phenomena. Thus,
the physical object of sight consisting in colour and light ('light-wave'), is
the necessary conditional relation and the sine qua non for the arising of
eye-consciousness (cakkhu-viññána), etc.; sound ('sound wave') for
ear-consciousness (sotá-viññána), etc.; further, any object arising in
the mind is the conditional relation for mind-consciousness (mano-viññána). The
mind-object may be anything whatever, corporeal or mental, past, present or
future, real or imaginary.
(3) Predominance-conditional relation (adhipati-paccaya) is the term for 4
things, on the preponderance and predominance of which are dependent the
mental phenomena associated with them, namely: concentrated intention (chanda, ),
Energy (viriya, ), consciousness (citta) and
investigation (vímamsá). In one and the same state of consciousness,
however, only one of these 4 phenomena can be predominant at a time. "Whenever
such phenomena as consciousness and mental concomitants are arising by giving
preponderance to one of these 4 things, then this phenomenon is for the other
phenomena a conditional relation by way of predominance" (Patth.). Cf. iddhi-páda.
(4-5) Proximity and contiguity (or immediacy)-conditional relation (anantara
and samanantara-paccaya) - both being identical - refer to any state of
consciousness and mental phenomena associated with them, which are the
conditional relations for the immediately following stage in the process of
consciousness. For example, in the visual process, eye-consciousness is for
the immediately following mind element - performing the function of receiving
the visible object - a conditional relation by way of contiguity; and so is this
mind-element for the next following mind-consciousness element, performing the
function of investigating the object, etc. Cf. viññána-kicca.
(6) Co-nascence condition (sahajáta-paccaya), i.e. conditional
relation by way
of simultaneous arising, is a phenomenon that for another one forms, a
conditional relation in such a way that, simultaneously with its arising, also the other
thing must arise. Thus, for instance, in one and the same moment each of the 4
mental groups (feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness) is
for the 3 other groups a conditional relation by way of co-nascence or co-arising; or
again each of the 4 physical elements (solid, liquid, heat, motion) is such a
conditional relation for the other 3 elements. Only at the moment of conception in the
mother's womb does corporeality (physical base of mind) serve for the 4 mental
groups as a conditional relation by way of conascence.
(7) conditional relation by way of mutuality (aññámañña-paccaya). All the just
mentioned associated and co-nascent mental phenomena, as well as the 4
physical elements, are, of course, at the same time also conditional relation by way of
mutuality, "just like three sticks propped up one by another." The 4 mental
groups are one for another a conditional relation by way of mutuality. So also are the 4
elements, and also mentality and corporeality at the moment of conception.
(8) Support-conditional relation (nissaya-paccaya). This conditional
either to a pre-nascent (s. 10) or co-nascent (s. 6) phenomenon which is
aiding other phenomena in the manner of a foundation or base, just as the
trees have the earth as their foundation, or as the oil-painting rests on the
canvas. In this way, the 5 sense-organs and the physical base of the mind are
for the corresponding 6 kinds of consciousness a prenascent, i.e. previously
arisen, conditional relation by way of support. Further all co-nascent (s. 6) phenomena
are mutually (s. 7) conditional relationed by each other by way of support.
(9) Decisive-support (or inducement) conditional relation (upanissaya-paccaya)
is threefold, namely (a) by way of object (árammanúpanissaya-paccaya),
(b) by way of proximity (anantarúpanissaya), (c) natural decisive
support (pakatupanissaya). These conditional relations act as strong inducement or
(a) Anything past, present or future, corporeal or mental, real or
imaginary, may, as object of our thinking, become a decisive support, or
strong inducement, to moral, immoral or karmically neutral states of mind.
Evil things, by wrong thinking about them, become an inducement to immoral
life; by right thinking, an inducement to moral life. But good things may be
an inducement not only to similarly good things, but also to bad things,
such as self-conceit, vanity, envy, etc.
(b;) is identical with proximity conditional relation (No. 4).
(c) Faith, virtue, etc., produced in one's own mind, or the influence of
climate, food, etc., on one's body and mind, may act as natural and decisive
support-conditional relations. Faith may be a direct and natural inducement to charity,
virtue to mental training, etc.; greed to theft, hate to murder; unsuitable
food and climate to ill-health; friends to spiritual progress or
(10) Pre-nascence-conditional relation (purejáta-paccaya) refers to something
previously arisen, which forms a base for something arising later on. For
example, the 5 physical sense-organs and the physical base of mind, having
already arisen at the time of birth, form the conditional relation for the consciousness
arising later, and for the mental phenomena associated therewith.
(11) Post-nascence-conditional relation (pacchá-játa-paccaya) refers to
consciousness and the phenomena therewith associated, because they are - just
as is the feeling of hunger- a necessary conditional relation for the preservation of
this already arisen body.
(12) Repetition-conditional relation (ásevana-paccaya) refers to the karmical
consciousness, in which each time the preceding impulsive moments (javana-citta, ) are for all the succeeding ones a
conditional relation by way of repetition and
frequency, just as in learning by heart, through constant repetition, the
later recitation becomes gradually easier and easier.
(13) Karma-conditional relation (kamma-paccaya). The pre-natal karma (i.e
karma-intentions, kamma-cetaná, in a previous birth) is the generating
conditional relation (cause) of the 5 sense-organs, the fivefold sense-consciousness, and
the other karma-produced mental and corporeal phenomena in a later birth. - Karmical intention is also a
conditional relation by way of karma for the co-nascent
mental phenomena associated therewith, but these phenomena are in no way
(14) Karma-result-conditional relation (vipáka-paccaya). The karma-resultant 5
kinds of sense-consciousness are a conditional relation by way of karma-result for the
co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.
(15) Nutriment-conditional relation (áhára-paccaya). For the 4 nutriments, s.
(16) Faculty-conditional relation (indriya-paccaya). This
conditional relation applies to
20 faculties (indriya, ), leaving out No. 7 and 8 from the 22
faculties. Of these 20 faculties, the 5 physical sense-organs (1 - 5), in
their capacity as faculties, form a conditional relation only for incorporeal phenomena
(eye-consciousness etc.); physical vitality (6) and all the remaining
faculties, for the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena.
(17) Jhána-conditional relation (jhána-paccaya) is a name for the 7 so-called
jhána-factors, as these form a conditional relation to the co-nascent mental and
corporeal phenomena, to wit: (1) thought-conception (vitakka), (2)
discursive thinking (vicára), (3) interest (píti), (4)
(5) sadness (domanassa), (6) indifference (upekkhá), (7)
1, 2, 3, 4, 7 are found in 4 classes of greedy consciousness (s. Tab. I.
22-25); 1, 2, 5, 7 in hateful consciousness (ib. 30, 31); 1, 2, 6, 7 in the
classes of deluded consciousness (ib. 32, 33).
This conditional relation does not only apply to jhána alone, but also to the
general intensifying ('absorbing') impact of these 7 factors.
(18) Path-conditional relation (magga-paccaya) refers to the 12 path-factors,
as these are for the karmically advantageous and disadvantageous mental phenomena
associated with them, a way of escape from this or that mental constitution,
namely: (1) knowledge (paññá = sammáditthi, right understanding), (2)
(right or wrong) thought-conception (vitakka), (3) right speech (sammá-vácá), (4) right bodily action (sammá-kammanta), (5) right livelihood (sammá-ájíva),
(6) (right or wrong) Energy (viriya), (7) (right or wrong) mindfulness
(sati), (8) (right or wrong) Concentration (samádhi), (9) wrong
views (miccháditthi), (10) wrong speech (micchá-vácá), (11)
wrong bodily action (micchá-kammanta), (12) wrong livelihood (micchá-ájíva).
(19) Association-conditional relation (sampayutta-paccaya) refers to the
co-nascent (s. 6) and mutually (s. 7) conditioned 4 mental groups
(khandha), "as they aid each other by their being associated, by having a
common physical base, a common object, and by their arising and disappearing
simultaneously" (Patth. Com.).
(20) Dissociation-conditional relation (vippayutta-paccaya) refers to such
phenomena as aid other phenomena by not having the same physical base (eye,
etc.) and objects. Thus corporeal phenomena are for mental phenomena, and
conversely, a conditional relation by way of dissociation, whether co-nascent or not.
(2l) Presence-conditional relation (atthi-paccaya) refers to a phenomenon -
being pre-nascent or co-nascent - which through its presence is a conditional
relation for other phenomena. This conditional relation applies to the conditions Nos. 6, 7, 8,
(22) Absence-conditional relation (natthi-paccaya) refers to consciousness,
etc., which has just passed, and which thus forms the necessary conditional
the immediately following stage of consciousness by giving it an opportunity
to arise. Cf. No. 4.
(23) Disappearance-conditional relation (vigata-paccaya) is identical with No.
(24) Non-disappearance-conditional relation (avigata-paccaya) is identical with
These 24 conditions should be known thoroughly for a detailed understanding
of that famous formula of the dependent origination (paticcasamuppáda,)