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Bahula-kamma: 'habitual kamma': see: kamma.

Bala: 'powers'. Among various groups of powers the following five are most frequently met with in the texts: 1 faith saddhā, 2 energy viriya, 3 awareness or mindfulness sati, 4 concentration samādhi, 5 understanding paññā .

Their particular aspect, distinguishing them from the corresponding 5 spiritual abilities indriya, is that they are unshakable by their opposites: 1 the power of faith is unshakable by faithlessness unbelief; 2 energy, by laziness; 3 awareness or mindfulness, by forgetfulness; 4 concentration, by distractedness; 5 understanding, by ignorance see Pts.M., ñāna Kathā. They represent, therefore, the aspect of firmness in the spiritual abilities.

According to A.V. 15, the power 1 becomes manifest in the 4 qualities of the Stream-winner sotāpannassa angāni, 2 in the 4 right efforts see: padhāna, 3 in the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness satipatthāna, 4 in the 4 absorptions jhāna, 5 in the full comprehension of the 4 Noble Truths sacca.

Cf. see: XLVIII, 43; see: L. Bala Samyutta.

In A. VII, 3, the powers of moral shame hiri and Fear of Wrongdoing ottappa are added to the aforementioned five Several other groups of 2 see: patisankhāna-bala, 4, 5 and more powers are mentioned in the texts. - About the 10 powers of a Buddha, see: dasa-bala

Balance of mental abilities: indriya samatta.

Bases: The 12 of the perceptual process: āyatana

Beautiful: sobhana.

Beauty: deliverance through the perception of: cf. vimokkha II. 3 To hold for beautiful or pure subha what is impure asubha, is one of the 4 perversions see: vipallāsa.

Behaviour: morality consisting in good: abhisamācārikasīla.

Being: living: satta, further see: puggala. - Belief in eternal personality: bhava-ditthi see: ditthi, sassata-ditthi.

Beings: The 9 worlds of: sattāvāsa.

Belief: blind: see: indriya-samatta.

Bhangānupassanā-ñāna: 'knowledge consisting in contemplation of dissolution' of all forms of existence, is one kind of insight: see: visuddhi VI, 2.

Bhava: 'becoming', 'process of existence', consists of 3 planes: sense-existence kāma-bhava, fine-material existence rūpa-bhava, immaterial existence arūpa-bhava. Cf. loka.

The whole process of existence may be divided into two aspects:

1: Kamma-making kamma-bhava, i.e. the kammically active side of existence, being the cause of rebirth and consisting in advantageous and disadvantageous intentional actions. See Kamma, paticca-samuppāda IX.

2: Kamma-produced rebirth, or regenerating process uppattibhava, i.e. the kammically passive side of existence consisting in the arising and developing of the kamma-produced and therefore morally neutral mental and bodily phenomena of existence. Cf. Tab. - App..

Bhāva: feminine and masculine 'nature', refers to the sexual characteristics of the body, and belongs to the group of materiality see: khandha. It is a commentarial term for the abilities of femininity and masculinity see: indriya 7, 8. App..

Bhava-ditthi: 'belief in being' eternal personality; see: sassataditthi, ditthi

Bhāvanā: 'mental development' lit. 'calling into existence, producing' is what in English is generally but rather vaguely called 'meditation'. One has to distinguish 2 kinds: development of tranquillity samatha-bhāvanā, i.e. concentration samādhi, and development of insight vipassanā-bhāvanā, i.e. understanding paññā .

These two important terms, tranquillity and insight see: samatha-vipassanā, are very often met with and explained in the Sutta, as well as in the Abhidhamma.

Tranquillity samatha is the concentrated, unshaken, peaceful, and therefore undefiled state of mind, whilst insight vipassanā is the intuitive insight into the impermanence, misery and impersonality anicca dukkha anattā see: tilakkhana of all bodily and mental phenomena of existence, included in the 5 groups of existence, namely, materiality, feeling, perception, mental constructions and consciousness; see: khandha.

Tranquillity, or concentration of mind, according to Sankhepavannana Commentary to Abhidhammattha-sangaha, bestows a threefold blessing: favourable rebirth, present happy life, and purity of mind which is the condition of insight. Concentration samādhi is the indispensable foundation and precondition of insight by purifying the mind from the 5 mental defilements or hindrances nīvarana, whilst insight vipassanā produces the 4 supra mundane stages of Nobility and deliverance of mind. The Buddha therefore says: May you develop mental concentration, o Bhikkhus; for who is mentally concentrated, sees things according to reality see: XXII, 5. And in Mil. it is said: Just as when a lighted lamp is brought into a dark chamber, the lamp-light Will destroy the darkness and produce and spread the light, just so will insight, once arisen, destroy the darkness of ignorance and produce the light of knowledge.

Vis.M III-XI gives full directions how to attain full concentration and the absorptions jhāna by means of the following 40 meditation subjects kammatthāna:

10 kasina-exercises see: kasina. These produce the 4 absorptions

10 loathsome subjects asubha. These produce the 1st absorption.

10 recollections anussati: of the Buddha buddhānussati, the Doctrine dhammānussati, the Brotherhood of the Noble Ones sanghānussati, morality, generosity, the divine beings, death maranasati, the body kāyagatāsati,, in-and-outbreathing ānāpāna-sati and peace upasamānussati, . Among these, the recollection or awareness or mindfulness of in-and-out breathing may produce all the 4 absorptions, that of the body the 1st absorption, the rest only neighbourhood-concentration upacāra-samādhi, see: samādhi.

4 sublime abodes brahma-vihāra: loving-kindness, Pity, altruistic joy, equanimity mettā, karunā, muditā, upekkhā. Of these, the first 3 exercises may produce 3 absorptions, the last one the 4th absorption only.

4 immaterial spheres arūpāyatana see. jhāna : of unbounded space, unbounded consciousness, nothingness, neither-perception-nor-non-perception. These are based upon the 4th absorption.

1 perception of the loathsomeness of food āhāre patikkūla-saññā, which may produce neighbourhood-concentration

1 analysis of the 4 elements catudhātu-vavatthāna see. dhātu-vavatthāna, which may produce neighbourhood-concentration.

Mental development forms one of the 3 kinds of meritorious action puñña-kiriya-vatthu. 'Delight in meditation' bhāvanā-rāmatā is one of the noble usages ariya-vamsa.

Bhāvanā-bala: see: patisankhāna-bala

Bhāvanā-maya-paññā: understanding based on mental development'; see: paññā

Bhavanga-santāna: 'continuity of subconsciousness'; see: santāna

Bhavanga-sota: and Bhavanga-citta: The first term may tentatively be rendered as the 'undercurrent forming the condition of being, or existence', and the second as 'subconsciousness', though, as will be evident from the following, it differs in several respects from the usage of that term in Western psychology. Bhavanga bhava-anga, which, in the canonical works, is mentioned twice or thrice in the Patthāna, is explained in the Abhidhamma commentaries as the foundation or condition kārana of existence bhava, as the sine, qua of life, having the nature of a process, lit. a flux or stream sota. Herein, since time immemorial, all contacts and experiences are, as it were, stored up, or better said, are functioning, but concealed as such to full consciousness, from where however they occasionally emerge as subconscious phenomena and approach the threshold of full consciousness, or crossing it become fully conscious. This so-called 'subconscious life-stream' or undercurrent of life is that by which might be explained the ability of memory, paranormal psychic phenomena, mental and physical growth, kamma and rebirth. etc. An alternative rendering is 'life-continuum'.

It should be noted that bhavanga-citta is a kamma-resultant state of consciousness vipāka, and that, in birth as a human or in higher forms of existence, it is always the result of good, or advantageous kamma kusala-kamma-vipāka, though in varying degrees of strength see: patisandhi, end of the article. The same holds true for rebirth consciousness patisandhi and death consciousness cuti, which are only particular manifestations of subconsciousness. In Vis.M XIV it is said:

As soon as rebirth-consciousness in the embryo at the time of conception has ceased, there arises a similar subconsciousness with exactly the same object, following immediately upon rebirth-consciousness and being the result of this or that kamma intentional action done in a former birth and remembered there at the moment before death. And again a further similar state of subconsciousness arises. Now, as long as no other consciousness arises to interrupt the continuity of the life-stream, so long the life-stream, like the flow of a river, rises in the same way again and again, even during dreamless sleep and at other times. In this way one has to understand the continuous arising of those states of consciousness in the life-stream. Cf. viññāna-kicca . For more details, see: Fund. 11. App..

Bhava-tanhā: 'craving for eternal existence'; see: tanhā

Bhavāsava: 'fermentation of existence'; see: āsava

Bhayatupatthāna-ñāna: 'knowledge consisting in the awareness of terror', is one of those kinds of insight-knowledge that form the 'purification by knowledge and vision of the path-progress' see: visuddhi, VI..

Bhikkhu: A fully ordained disciple of the Buddha is called a Bhikkhu. Mendicant Bhikkhu may be suggested as the closest equivalent for Bhikkhu, literally it means he who begs but Bhikkhus do not beg. They silently stand at the door for food. They live on what is spontaneously given by the supporters. He is not a priest as he is no mediator between God and man. He has no vows for life, but he is bound by his rules which he takes of his own accord. He leads a life of voluntary poverty and celibacy. If he is unable to live the Noble Life, he can discard the robe at any time.

Bhojane mattaññutā: 'knowing the measure in eating'.

Now, o Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu wisely reflecting partakes of his foodfood, neither for pastime, nor for indulgence, nor to become beautiful or handsome, but only to maintain and support this body, to avoid harm and to assist the Noble life, knowing: 'In this way I shall dispel the former pain of hunger, etc. and no new pain shall I let arise, and long life, blamelessness and ease will be my share ' This, o Bhikkhus, is knowing the measure in eating. A. III. 16. How o Bhikkhus, would it be possible for Nanda to lead the absolutely pure life of Nobility, if he did not watch over his senses and did not know the measure in eating? A. VII, 9.

Biases: see: Āsava

Birth process: upapatti-bhava : see: bhava. Further see: patisandhi, jāti

Bodhi: from verbal root budhi to awaken, to understand: awakening, enlightenment, supreme knowledge. Through Bodhi one awakens from the slumber or stupor inflicted upon the mind by the defilements kilesa and comprehends the Four Noble Truths sacca Com. to M. 10.

The enlightenment of a Buddha is called sammā-sambodhi 'perfect enlightenment'. The faith saddhā of a lay follower of the Buddha is described as he believes in the enlightenment of the Perfect One saddahati Tathāgatassa bodhim: M. 53, A. III, 2.

As components of the state of enlightenment and contributory factors to its achievement, are mentioned in the texts: the 7 factors of enlightenment bojjhanga = bodhi-anga and the 37 'things pertaining to enlightenment' bodhipakkhiya-dhammā. In one of the later books of the Sutta-Pitaka, the Buddhavamsa, 10 bodhipācana-dhammā are mentioned, i.e. qualities that lead to the ripening of perfect enlightenment; these are the 10 perfections pāramī.

There is a threefold classification of enlightenment: 1. that of a Noble Disciple sāvaka-bodhi. i.e. of an Arahat, 2. of an Independently Enlightened One pacceka-bodhi, and 3. of a Perfect Enlightened One sammā-sambodhi This 3-fold division, however, is of later origin, and in this form it neither occurs in the canonical texts nor in the older Sutta commentaries. The closest approximation to it is found in a verse sutta which is probably of a comparatively later period, the Treasure Store Sutta Nidhikkanda Sutta of the Khuddakapātha, where the following 3 terms are mentioned in stanza 15: sāvaka-pāramī, pacceka-bodhi, buddha-bhūmi see Khp. Tr., pp. 247f..

The commentaries e.g. to M., Buddhavamsa, Cariyapitaka generally give a 4-fold explanation of the word bodhi: 1. the tree of enlightenment, 2. the Noble path ariya-magga, 3. Nibbāna, 4 omniscience of the Buddha: sabbaññutā-ñāna. As to 2, the commentaries quote Cula-Nidesa where bodhi is defined as the knowledge relating to the 4 paths of Stream-entry, etc.; catūsu, maggesu.

Neither in the canonical texts nor in the old commentaries is it stated that a follower of the Buddha may choose between the three kinds of enlightenment and aspire either to become a Buddha, a Pacceka-Buddha, or an Arahat-disciple. This conception of a choice between three aspirations is, however, frequently found in present-day Theravāda countries, e.g. in Sri Lanka.

Bodhipakkhiya-dhammā: The 37 'things pertaining to enlightenment', or 'requisites of enlightenment' comprise the entire doctrines of the Buddha. They are:

the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness satipatthāna,
the 4 right efforts see: padhāna,
the 4 roads to power iddhi-pāda,
the 5 spiritual abilities indriya, see: bala,
the 5 spiritual powers bala,
the 7 factors of enlightenment bojjhanga,
the Noble 8-fold path see: magga.

In M. 77 all the 37 bodhipakkhiya-dhammā are enumerated and explained though not called by that name. A detailed explanation of them is given in Vis.M XXII. In S.XLVII, 51, 67, only the five spiritual abilities indriya are called bodhipakkhiya-dhammā and in the Jhāna Vibhanga, only the 7 factors of enlightenment bojjhanga.

See The Requisites of Enlightenment, by Ledi Sayadaw WHEEL 169/172.

Bodhisatta: 'Enlightenment Being', is a being destined to Buddhahood, a future Buddha. According to the traditional belief a Bodhisatta, before reaching his last birth as a Buddha on this earth, is living in the Tusita-heaven see: deva, the heaven of bliss. Cf. A. IV, 127; VIII, 70.

In the Pāli Canon and commentaries, the designation 'Bodhisatta' is given only to Prince Siddhattha before his enlightenment and to his former existences. The Buddha himself uses this term when speaking of his life prior to enlightenment e.g. M. 4, M. 26. Bodhisattahood is neither mentioned nor recommended as an ideal higher than or alternative to Arahatship; nor is there any record in the Pāli scriptures of a disciple declaring it as his aspiration. - See bodhi.

Bodily action: advantageous or disadvantageous; see: kamma, kamma constructions - Right b.a. = sammā-kammanta, see: magga.

Bodily postures: the 4: iriyā-patha

Body: kāya Contemplation on the b. is one of the 4 satipatthāna.

Body-witness: kāya-sakkhi.

Bojjhanga: 'the 7 factors of enlightenment', are: awareness or mindfulness sati-sambojjhanga, sati, investigation of the law dhamma-vicaya-sambojjhanga energy viriya-sambojjhanga, viriya padhāna rapture pīti-sambojjhanga tranquillity passaddhi-sambojjhanga, concentration samādhi-sambojjhanga, equanimity upekkhā. Because they lead to enlightenment, therefore they are called factors of enlightenment see: XLVI, 5.

Though in the 2nd factor, dhamma-vicaya the word dhamma is taken by most translators to stand for the Buddhist doctrine, it probably refers to the bodily and mental phenomena nāma-rūpa-dhammā as presented to the investigating mind by awareness or mindfulness, the 1st factor. With that interpretation, the term may be rendered by 'investigation of phenomena'.

In A.X. 102, the 7 factors are said to be the means of attaining the threefold understanding see: tevijjā.

They may be attained by means of the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness satipatthāna,, as it is said in see: XLVI, 1 and explained in M. 118:

1: Whenever, o Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body kāya feeling vedanā mind citta and mental-objects dhammā strenuous, clearly-conscious, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and grief, at such a time his awareness or mindfulness is present and undisturbed; and whenever his awareness or mindfulness is present and undisturbed, at such a time he has gained and is developing the link to Awakening 'awareness or mindfulness' sati-sambojjhanga and thus this link to Awakening reaches fullest perfection.

2: Whenever, while dwelling with awareness or mindfulness, he wisely investigates, examines and thinks over the law... at such a time he has gained and is developing the link to Awakening 'investigation of the law' dhamma-vicaya°...

3: Whenever, while wisely investigating his energy is firm and unshaken... at such a time he has gained and is developing the link to Awakening 'energy'viriya...

4: Whenever in him, while firm in energy, arises supersense-rapture... at such a time he has gained and is developing the link to Awakening 'rapture' pīti °.

5: Whenever, while enraptured in mind, his body and his mind become composed... at such a time he has gained and is developing the link to Awakening 'tranquillity' passaddhi °

6: Whenever, while being composed in his body and happy, his mind becomes concentrated... at such a time he has gained and is developing the link to Awakening 'concentration' samādhi °

7: Whenever he looks with complete indifference on his mind thus concentrated... at such a time he has gained and is developing the link to Awakening 'equanimity'upekkhā .

Literature: Bojjhanga Samyutta see: XLVI; Bojjhanga Vibh. - For the conditions leading to the arising of each of the factors, see the Com. to Satipatthāna Sutta Way of Mindfulness, by Soma Thera; 3rd ed., 1967, BPS. Further, The 'Seven Factors of Enlightenment, by Piyadassi Thera WHEEL 1.

Bondages: mental: cetaso vinibandha.

Bonds: the 4: yoga.

Both-ways liberated: see: ubhato-bhāga-vimutta ariyapuggala B. 4.

Infinite consciousness: and b. space, Sphere of: see: jhāna 5, 6.

Brahma-cariya: 'pure chaste or Noble life', is a term for the life of the monk. Also a lay-devotee who observes the 8 moral precepts sikkhāpada, takes as the third precept the vow of chastity, i.e. full abstention from sexual relations. The highest aim and purpose of b. is, according to M. 29, the 'unshakable deliverance of mind' akuppā ceto-vimutti .

Brahma-kāyika-deva: The 'divine beings of the Brahma-world' inhabit the first 3 heavens of the fine-material world, rūpaloka corresponding to the 1st absorption jhāna. The highest ruler of them is called the Great Brahma mahā-brahmā. With caustic humor he is said D. 11 to pretend: I am Brahma, the Great Brahmā, the Most High, the Invincible One, the Omniscient One, the Ruler, the Lord, the Creator, the Maker, the Perfect One, the Preserver, the Controller, the Father of all that was and will be. Cf. deva II. 1-3.

Brahma-loka: 'Brahma-world', in the widest sense, is a name for the fine-material rūpa-loka and immaterial world arūpa-loka; in a narrower sense, however, only for the first three heavens of the fine-material world. Cf. brahma-kāyika-deva.

Brahma-vihāra: the 4 'sublime' or 'divine abodes', also called the 4 Infinite states appamaññā are: loving-kindness mettā Pity karunā, altruistic or sympathetic joy muditā equanimity upekkhā.

The stereotype text on the development of these 4 sublime abodes brahma-vihāra-bhāvanā bhāvanā often met with in the Suttas,- is as follows: 'There, o Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu with a mind full of loving-kindness pervading first one direction, then a second one, then a third one, then the fourth one, just so above, below and all around; and everywhere identifying himself with all, he is pervading the whole world with mind full of loving-kindness, with mind wide, developed, unbounded, free from hate and ill-will. Hereafter follows the same theme with Pity, altruistic joy, and equanimity.

Literature: Detailed explanation in Vis.M IX. - For texts see: path, 97ff; texts on mettā in The Practice of Loving Kindness, by ñānamoli Thera WHEEL 7. - The Four Sublime States, by Nyanaponika Thera WHEEL 6. - Brahma Vihāra, by Narada Thera Vajirarama, Colombo, 1962.

Breathing: awareness or mindfulness of in-and-out-breathing ānāpānasati.

Buddha: see: sammā-sambodhi.

Buddhānussati: 'recollection of the Enlightened One'; see: anussati

Buddha-sāsana: see: sāsana

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