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Kabalinkārāhāra: lit. 'food formed into balls', i.e. food formed into mouthfuls for eating according to Indian custom; it denotes 'material food' and belongs, together with the three mental nutriments, to the group of four nutriments see: āhāra

Kalāpa: 'group', 'unit': 1. 'material unit' see: rūpa-kalāpa 2. It has the meaning of 'group of existence' khandha in kalāpasammasana see: i.e. 'comprehension by groups', which is the application of 'methodical or inductive insight' naya-vipassanā to the comprehension of the 5 aggregates or clusters khandha as impermanent, painful and no-self. It is a process of methodical summarization, or generalization, from one's own meditative experience that is applied to each of the 5 aggregates or clusters, viewed as past, present, future, as internal and external, etc. In Vis.M XX, where the 'comprehension by groups' is treated in detail, it is said to constitute 'the beginning of insight' as it leads to the 'knowledge of rise and fall', being the first of the 8 insightknowledges see: visuddhi VI. It is necessary for accomplishing the 5th purification see: visuddhi V; Vis.M XX, 2, 6ff..

Kalpa: Skr = kappa.

Kalyāna-mitta: 'noble or good friend', is called a senior Bhikkhu who is the mentor and friend of his pupil, wishing for his welfare and concerned with his progress, guiding his meditation; in particular, the meditation teacher kammatthānācariya is so called. For details see Vis.M III, 28,57ff. The Buddha said that noble friendship is the entire Noble life S. III, 18; XLV, 2, and he himself is the good friend par excellence: Ananda, it is owing to my being a good friend to them that living beings subject to birth are freed from birth S. III, 18.

Kāma: may denote: 1. subjective sensuality, 'sense-desire'; 2. objective sensuality, the five sense-objects.

1. Subjective sensuality, or sense-desire, is directed to all five sense-objects, and is synonymous with kāma-cchanda 'sense-desire', one of the 5 hindrances nīvarana, kāma-rāga sense-lust', one of the ten mental chains, kāma-tanhā 'sense-craving', one of the 3 cravings tanhā, kāma-vitakka 'sense-thought', one of the 3 wrong thoughts micchā-sankappa see: vitakka - Sense-desire is also one of the fermentations āsava and clingings upādāna.

2. Objective sensuality is, in the canonical texts, mostly called kāma-guna 'cords or strands of sensuality'.

There are 5 cords of sensuality: the visible objects, cognizable by visual-consciousness, that are desirable, cherished, pleasant, lovely, sense-and alluring; the sounds... smells... tastes... bodily contacts cognizable by body-consciousness, that are desirable. D. 33; M. 13, 26, 59, 66.

These two kinds of kāma are called 1. kilesa-kāma i.e. kāma as a mental defilement, 2. vatthu-kāma i.e. kāma as the object-base of sensuality; first in MNid.. I, p. 1, and frequently in the commentaries.

Sense-desire is finally eliminated at the stage of the Non-Returner anāgāmi see: ariya-puggala,

The peril and misery of sense-desire is often described in the texts, e.g. in stirring similes at M. 22, 54, and in the 'gradual instruction' see: ānupubbī-kathā See further M. 13, 45, 75; Sn. v. 766ff.; Dhp. 186, 215.

The texts often stress the fact that what mental chains man to the world of the senses are not the sense-organs nor the sense-objects but lustful desire chandarāga On this see A. VI, 63; S. XXXV, 122, 191. - App..

Kāma-bhava: 'sense-existence'; s. bhava

Kāma-cchanda: 'sense-desire', s. nīvarana chanda

Kāma-guna: see: kāma

Kāma-loka: 'sense-world', see: loka

Kāma-rāga: 'sense-lust', is one of the 10 mental chains q.v..

Kāmāsava: s: Āsava

Kāma-sukh'allikānuyoga: 'being addicted to sensual pleasures', is one of the 2 extremes to be avoided by the monk; see: majjhima-patipadā

Kāma-tanhā: 'sense-craving'; s. tanhā

Kāmāvacara: 'sense-sphere'; s. avacara

Kāmesu-micchācāra: lit. 'wrong or evil conduct with regard to sensual things'; 'unlawful sexual intercourse' refers to adultery, and to intercourse with minors or other persons under guardianship. The abstaining from this unlawful act is one of the 5 moral rules see: binding upon all Buddhists. Through any other sexual act one does not become guilty of the above transgression, which is considered a great crime. The monk, however, has to observe perfect chastity.

In many Suttas e.g. A.X., 176 we find the following explanation: He avoids unlawful sexual intercourse, abstains from it. He has no intercourse with girls who are still under the protection of father or mother, brother, sister or relatives, nor with married women, nor female convicts, nor, lastly, with betrothed girls.

Kamma: advantageous or disadvantageous action; Sanskrit karma, Pāli: kamma: 'action', correctly speaking denotes the advantageous and disadvantageous intentions kusala and akusala-cetanā and their concomitant mental properties, causing rebirth and shaping the destiny of beings. These kammical intentions kammacetanā become manifest as advantageous or disadvantageous actions by body kāya-kamma speech vacī-kamma and mind mano-kamma Thus the Buddhist term 'kamma' by no means signifies the result of actions, and quite certainly not the fate of man, or perhaps even of whole nations the so-called wholesale or mass-kamma, misconceptions which, through the influence of theosophy, have become widely spread in the West.

intention cetanā o Bhikkhus, is what I call action cetanāham bhikkhave kammam vadāmi for through intention one performs the action by body, speech or mind.. There is kamma action, o Bhikkhus, that ripens in hell. Kamma that ripens in the animal world.. Kamma that ripens in the world of men. Kamma that ripens in the divine world. Threefold, however, is the fruit of kamma: ripening during the life-time dittha-dhamma-vedanīya-kamma ripening in the next birth upapajja-vedanīya-kamma ripening in later births aparāpariya-vedanīya kamma... A.VI, 63.

The 3 conditions or roots mūla of disadvantageous kamma actions are greed, hatred, confusion lobha dosa moha those of advantageous kamma are: unselfishness alobha hatelessness adosa = mettā good-will, unconfusedness amoha = paññā knowledge.

Greed, o Bhikkhus, is a condition for the arising of kamma; hatred is a condition for the arising of kamma; confusion is a condition for the arising of kamma. A. III, 109.

The disadvantageous actions are of 3 kinds, conditioned by greed, or hate, or confusion.

Killing... stealing... unlawful sexual intercourse... lying... slandering... rude speech... foolish babble, if practised, carried on, and frequently cultivated, leads to rebirth in hell, or amongst the animals, or amongst the ghosts A. III, 40. He who kills and is cruel goes either to hell or, if reborn as man, will be short-lived. He who torments others will be afflicted with disease. The angry one will look ugly, the envious one will be without influence, the stingy one will be poor, the stubborn one will be of low descent, the indolent one will be without knowledge. In the contrary case, man will be reborn in heaven or reborn as man, he will be long-lived, possessed of beauty, influence, noble descent and knowledge cf. M. 135.

For the above 10-fold advantageous and disadvantageous course of action, see kamma-patha For the 5 heinous crimes with immediate result, see: ānantarika-kamma

Owners of their kamma are the beings, heirs of their kamma, their kamma is their womb from which they are born, their kamma is their friend, their refuge. Whatever kamma they perform, good or bad, thereof they will be the heirs M. 135.

With regard to the time of the taking place of the kamma-result vipāka one distinguishes, as mentioned above, 3 kinds of kamma:

1. kamma ripening during the life-time dittha-dhamma-vedanīya kamma
2. kamma ripening in the next birth upapajja-vedanīya-kamma
3. kamma ripening in later births aparāpariya-vedanīya-kamma

The first two kinds of kamma may be without kamma-result vipāka if the circumstances required for the taking place of the kamma-result are missing, or if, through the preponderance of counteractive kamma and their being too weak, they are unable to produce any result. In this case they are called ahosi-kamma lit. 'kamma that has been', in other words, ineffectual kamma.

The third type of kamma, however, which bears fruit in later lives, will, whenever and wherever there is an opportunity, be productive of kamma-result. Before its result has ripened, it will never become ineffective as long as the life-process is kept going by craving and ignorance.

According to the Com., e.g. Vis.M XIX, the 1st of the 7 kammical impulse-moments kamma javana s. javana is considered as 'kamma ripening during the life-time', the 7th moment as 'kamma ripening in the next birth', the remaining 5 moments as 'kamma ripening in later births'.

With regard to their functions one distinguishes:

1. regenerative or productive kamma janaka-kamma,
2. supportive or consolidating kamma upatthambhaka-kamma,
3. counteractive suppressive or frustrating kamma upapīlaka-kamma,
4. destructive or supplanting kamma upaghātaka or upacchedaka-kamma

1 produces the 5 groups of existence materiality, feeling, perception, mental constructions, consciousness at rebirth as well as during life-continuity.
2 does not produce kamma-results but is only able to maintain the already produced kamma-results.
3 counteracts or suppresses the kamma-results.
4 destroys the influence of a weaker kamma and effects only its own result.

With regard to the priority of their result one distinguishes:

1. weighty kamma garuka-kamma,
2. habitual kamma ācinnaka or bahula-kamma,
3. death-proximate kamma maranāsanna-kamma,
4. stored-up kamma katattā-kamma

1, 2: The weighty garuka and the habitual bahula advantageous or disadvantageous kamma are ripening earlier than the light and rarely performed kamma. 3: The death-proximate maranāsanna kamma - i.e. the advantageous or disadvantageous intention present immediately before death, which often may be the reflex of some previously performed good or evil action kamma or of a sign of it kamma-nimitta or of a sign of the future existence gati-nimitta - produces rebirth. 4: In the absence of any of these three actions at the moment before death, the stored-up katattā kamma will produce rebirth.

A real, and in the ultimate sense true, understanding of Buddhist kamma doctrine is possible only through a deep insight into the impersonality see: anattā and conditionality see: paticcasamuppāda paccaya of all phenomena of existence. Everywhere, in all the forms of existence... such a one is beholding merely mental and physical phenomena kept going by their being bound up through causes and effects.

No doer does he see behind the deeds, no recipient apart from the kamma-fruit. And with full insight he clearly understands that the wise ones are using merely conventional terms when, with regard to the taking place of any action, they speak of a doer, or when they speak of a receiver of the kamma-results at their arising. Therefore the ancient masters have said:

'No doer of the deeds is found,
No one who ever reaps their fruits;
Empty phenomena roll on:
This view alone is right and true.

'And whilst the deeds and their results
Roll on, based on conditions all,
There no beginning can be seen,
Just as it is with seed and tree.' Vis.M XIX

Kamma kamma-paccaya is one of the 24 conditions paccaya App.: Kamma.

Literature: Kamma and Rebirth, by Nyanatiloka WHEEL 9; Survival and Kamma in Buddhist Perspective, by K.N. Jayatilleke WHEEL 141/143; Kamma and its Fruit WHEEL 221/224.

Kamma-accumulation: āyūhana.

Kammic-constructions: i.e. advantageous or disadvantageous intentions cetanā manifested as actions of body, speech or mind, form the 2nd link of the formula of dependent origination paticca-samuppāda.

Kamma-making: see: bhava, paticcasamuppāda

Kamma-produced materiality: s.

Kamma-result: vipāka

Kamma-round: kamma vatta see: vatta

Kammically acquired materiality: upādinnarūpa

Kammically advantageous: kusala cf. Tab. I.

kammically disadvantageous: akusala cf. Tab. I.

Kammically neutral: avyākata cf. Tab. I.

Kamma-bhava: see: bhava, paticcasamuppāda

Kammaja-rūpa: 'kamma-produced materiality'; s.

Kammaññatā: 'adaptability', i.e. of materiality rūpassa see: khandha Summary I, mental properties kāya and of consciousness citta cf. Tab. II.

Kammanta: sammā : 'right action'; s. magga

Kamma-paccaya: 'kamma as condition'; see: paccaya 13.

Kamma-patha: 'course of action', is a name for the group of 10 kinds of either disadvantageous or advantageous actions, viz.

I. The tenfold disadvantageous courses of action akusala-kamma-patha

3 bodily actions: 1: killing, 2: stealing, 3: unlawful sexual intercourse;
4 verbal actions: 4: lying, 5: slandering, 6: rude speech, 7: gossip;
3 mental actions: 8: covetousness, 9: ill-will, 10: wrong views.

Unadvantageous mental courses of action comprise only extreme forms of defiled thought: the greedy wish to appropriate others' property, the hateful thought of harming others, and pernicious views. Milder forms of mental defilement are also disadvantageous, but do not constitute 'courses of action'.

II. The tenfold advantageous course of action kusala-kamma-patha

3 bodily actions: 1: avoidance of killing, 2: not stealing, 3: no adultery
4 verbal actions: 4: avoidance of lying, 5: slandering, 6: rude speech, 7: gossip;
3 mental actions: 8: unselfishness, 9: good-will, 10: right views.

Both lists occur repeatedly, e.g. in A. X, 28, 176; M. 9; they are explained in detail in M. 114, and in Com. to M. 9 R. Und., p. 14, Atthasālini Tr. I, 126ff.

Kamma-samutthāna-rūpa: 'materiality produced through kamma'; see:

Kammatthāna: lit. 'working-ground' i.e. for meditation, is the term in the Com. for 'subjects of meditation'; see: bhāvanā

Kamma-vatta: 'kamma-round'; see: vatta.

Kammāyūhana: see: āyūhana

Kāmupādāna: 'sense-clinging', is one of the 4 kinds of clinging upādāna.

Kankhā: 'doubt', may be either an intellectual, critical doubt or an ethically and psychologically detrimental doubt. The latter may either be a persistent negative skepticism or wavering indecision. Only the detrimental doubt identical with vicikicchā is to be rejected as kammically disadvantageous, as it paralyses thinking and hinders the inner development of man. Reasoned, critical doubt in dubious matters is thereby not discouraged.

The 16 doubts enumerated in the Suttas e.g. M. 2 are the following: Have I been in the past? Or, have I not been in the past? What have I been in the past? How have I been in the past? From what state into what state did I change in the past? - Shall I be in the future? Or, shall I not be in the future? What shall I be in the future? How shall I be in the future? From what state into what state shall I change in the future? - Am I? Or, am I not? What am I? How am I? Whence has this being come? Whither will it go?

Kankhā-vitarana-visuddhi: 'purification by overcoming doubt', is the 4th of the 7 stages of purification visuddhi.

Kappa: Sanskrit kalpa 'world-period', an inconceivably long space of time, an aeon. This again is subdivided into 4 sections: world-dissolution dissolving world, continuation of the chaos samvatta-tthāyī world-construction vivatta-kappa continuation of the formed world vivatta-tthāyī

How long a world-dissolution will continue, how long the chaos, how long the construction, how long the continuation of the formed world, of these things; o Bhikkhus, one hardly can say that it will be so many years, or so many centuries, or so many millennia, or so many hundred thousands of years A. IV, 156

A detailed description of the 4 world-periods is given in that stirring discourse on the all-embracing impermanence in A. VII, 62.

The beautiful simile in S. XV, 5 may be mentioned here: Suppose, o Bhikkhus, there was a huge rock of one solid mass, one mile long, one mile wide, one mile high, without split or flaw. And at the end of every hundred years a man should come and rub against it once with a silken cloth. Then that huge rock would wear off and disappear quicker than a world-period. But of such world-periods, o Bhikkhus, many have passed away, many hundreds, many thousands, many hundred thousands. And how is this possible? Inconceivable, o Bhikkhus, is this samsāra, not to be discovered is any first beginning of beings, who obstructed by ignorance and ensnared by craving, are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths.

Compare here Grimm's German fairy-tale of the little shepherdboy: 'In Farther Pommerania there is the diamond-mountain, one hour high, one hour wide, one hour deep. There every hundred years a little bird comes and whets its little beak on it. And when the whole mountain is ground off, then the first second of eternity has passed.

Karunā: 'Pity', is one of the 4 sublime abodes brahma-vihāra.

Kasina: perhaps related to Sanskrit krtsna 'all, complete, whole', is the name for a purely external device to produce and develop concentration of mind and attain the 4 absorptions jhāna. It consists in concentrating one's full and undivided attention on one visible object as preparatory image parikamma-nimitta e.g. a colored spot or disc, or a piece of earth, or a pond at some distance, etc., until at last one perceives, even with the eyes closed, a mental reflex, the acquired image uggaha-nimitta Now, while continuing to direct one's attention to this image, there may arise the spotless and immovable counter-image patibhāga-nimitta and together with it the neighbourhood-concentration upacāra-samādhi will have been reached. While still persevering in the concentration on the object, one finally will reach a state of mind where all sense-activity is suspended, where there is no more seeing and hearing, no more perception of bodily contact and feeling, i.e. the state of the 1st mental absorption jhāna.

The 10 kasinas mentioned in the Suttas are: earth-kasina, water, fire, wind, blue, yellow, red, white, space, and consciousness. There are 10 kasina-spheres: someone sees the earth kasina, above, below, on all sides, undivided, unbounded. someone see the water-kasina, above, below, etc. M. 77; D. 33 Cf. abhibhāyatan bhāvanā further s. Fund. IV.

For space and consciousness-kasina we find in Vis.M V the names limited space-kasina paricchinnākāsa-kasina.. see: App. and light-kasina āloka-kasina

For full description see Vis.M IV-V; also Atthasālini Tr. I, 248.

Katattā-kamma: 'stored-up kamma'; see: kamma.

Kāya: lit: accumulation: 'group', 'body', may either refer to the physical body rūpa-kāya or to the mental body nāma-kāya In the latter case it is either a collective name for the mental groups feeling, perception, mental constructions, consciousness; s. khandha or merely for feeling, perception and a few of the mental constructions see: nāma e.g. in kāya-lahutā etc. cf. Tab. II.. kāya has this same meaning in the standard description of the 3rd absorption jhāna and he feels joy in his mind or his mental constitution kāya and e.g. Pug. 1-8 of the attainment of the 8 deliverances vimokkha, having attained the 8 deliverances in his mind, or his person kāya - kāya is also the 5th sense-organ, the body-organ; s. āyatana dhātu, indriya

Kāya-gatā-sati: 'awareness or mindfulness with regard to the body', refers sometimes e.g. Vis.M VIII, 2 only to the contemplation on the 32 parts of the body, sometimes e.g. M. 119 to all the various meditations comprised under the 'contemplation of the body' kāyānupassanā the 1st of the 4 'foundations of awareness or mindfulness', consisting partly in concentration exercises, partly in insight vipassanā exercises. On the other hand, the cemetery meditations sīvathika mentioned in the Satipatthāna M. 10 are nearly the same as the 10 contemplations of loathsomeness asubha-bhāvanā. of Vis.M VI, whereas elsewhere the contemplation on the 32 parts of the body is called the 'reflection on impurity' patikkūla-saññā

In such texts as: 'One thing, o Bhikkhus, developed and repeatedly practised, leads to the attainment of understanding. It is the contemplation on the body' A.I, the reference is to all exercises mentioned in the 1st Satipatthāna.

Vis.M VIII, 2 gives a detailed description and explanation of the method of developing the contemplation on the 32 parts of the body. This exercise can produce the 1st absorption only jhāna The stereotype text given in the Satipatthāna Sutta and elsewhere - but leaving out the brain - runs as follows:

And further, o Bhikkhus, the Bhikkhu contemplates this body from the soles of the feet upward, and from the tops of the hairs downward, with skin stretched over it, and filled with many impurities: 'This body has hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, intestines, bowels, stomach, excrement, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin grease, spittle, nasal mucus, oil of the joints, and urine.

Vis.M VIII, 2 says By repeating the words of this exercise one will become well acquainted with the wording, the mind will not rush here and there, the different parts will become distinct and appear like a row of fingers, or a row of hedge-poles. Now, just as one repeats the exercise in words, one should do it also in mind. The repeating in mind forms the condition for the penetration of the characteristic marks. He who thus has examined the parts of the body as to colour, shape, region, locality and limits, and considers them one by one, and not too hurriedly, as something loathsome, to such a one, while contemplating the body, all these things at the same time are appearing distinctly clear. But also when keeping one's attention fixed outwardly i.e. to the bodies of other beings, and when all the parts appear distinctly, then all men and animals moving about lose the appearance of living beings and appear like heaps of many different things. And it looks as if those foods and drinks, being swallowed by them, were being inserted into this heap of things. Now, while again and again one is conceiving the idea 'Disgusting! Disgusting!' - omitting in due course several parts - gradually the attainment - concentration appanā-samādhi i.e. the concentration of the jhāna will be reached. In this connection, the appearing of forms... is called the acquired image uggaha-nimitta the arising of loathsomeness, however, the counter-image patibhāganimitta

Kāya-kamma: 'bodily action'; see: kamma, kamma-patha

Kāya-kammaññatā: kāya-Lahutā, kāya-mudutā, kāya-pāguññatā kāya-passaddhi, kāya-ujukatā s. Tab. II. For passaddhi see: further bojjhanga

Kāya-lahutā: agility or lightness of mental properties see: lahutā

Kāyānupassanā: 'contemplation of the body', is one of the 4 foundations of awareness or mindfulness; s.

Kāya-passaddhi: tranquillity of mental properties, s. bojjhanga

Kāya-sakkhi: 'body-witness', is one of the 7 Noble Disciples see: ariya-puggala B.. He is one who in his own person lit. body has attained the 8 deliverances vimokkha, and after wisely understanding the phenomena, the fermentations have partly come to ceasing Pug. 32. In A. IX, 44 it is said: A monk, o brother, attains the 1st absorption jhāna, and as far as this domain reaches,- so far he has realized it in his own person. Thus the Blessed One calls such a person a body-witness in certain respects. The same is then repeated with regard to the 7 higher absorptions. Further again, o brother, the Bhikkhu attains the ceasing of perception and feeling see: nirodha-samāpatti and after wisely understanding the phenomena, all the fermentations come to ceasing. Thus, o brother, the Blessed One calls such a person a body-witness in all respects.

Kāya-viññatti: s. viññatti

Khalu-pacchā-bhattik'anga: see: dhutānga

Khana: 'moment'; see: citta-kkhana

Khandha: the 5 'groups of existence' or 'groups of clinging' upādānakhandha alternative renderings: aggregates or clusters, categories of clinging's objects. These are the 5 aspects in which the Buddha has summed up all the physical and mental phenomena of existence, and which appear to the ignorant man as his ego, or personality, to wit:

1 the materiality group khandha rūpa-khandha,
2 the feeling group vedanā-khandha,
3 the perception group saññā-khandha,
4 the mental-construction group sankhāra-khandha,
5 the consciousness-group viññāna-khandha

Whatever there exists of material things, whether past, present or future, one's own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, all that belongs to the materiality group. Whatever there exists of feeling... of perception... of mental constructions... of consciousness... all that belongs to the consciousness-group S. XXII, 48. - Another division is that into the 2 groups: mind 2-5 and materiality 1 nāma-rūpa, whilst in Dhamma Sanganī, the first book of the Abhidhamma, all the phenomena are treated by way of 3 groups: consciousness 5, mental properties 2-4, materiality 1, in Pāli citta cetasika, rūpa Cf. Guide I.

What is called individual existence is in reality nothing but a mere process of those mental and physical phenomena, a process that since time immemorial has been going on, and that also after death will still continue for unthinkably long periods of time. These 5 groups, however, neither singly nor collectively constitute any self-dependent real ego-entity, or personality attā nor is there to be found any such entity apart from them. Hence the belief in such an ego-entity or personality, as real in the ultimate sense, proves a mere illusion.

When all constituent parts are there,
The designation 'cart' is used;
Just so, where the five groups exist,
Of 'living being' do we speak. S. V. 10.

The fact ought to be emphasized here that these 5 groups, correctly speaking, merely form an abstract classification by the Buddha, but that they as such, i.e. as just these 5 complete groups, have no real existence, since only single representatives of these groups, mostly variable, can arise with any state of consciousness. For example, with one and the same unit of consciousness only one single kind of feeling, say joy or sorrow, can be associated and never more than one. Similarly, two different perceptions cannot arise at the same moment. Also, of the various kinds of sense-cognition or consciousness, only one can be present at a time, for example, seeing, hearing or inner consciousness, etc. Of the 50 mental constructions, however, a smaller or larger number are always associated with every state of consciousness, as we shall see later on.

Some writers on Buddhism who have not understood that the five khandha are just classificatory groupings, have conceived them as compact entities 'heaps', 'bundles', while actually, as stated above, the groups never exist as such, i.e. they never occur in a simultaneous totality of all their constituents. Also those single constituents of a group which are present in any given body-and-mind process, are of an evanescent nature, and so also their varying combinations. Feeling, perception and mental constructions are only different aspects and functions of a single unit of consciousness. They are to consciousness what redness, softness, sweetness, etc. are to an apple and have as little separate existence as those qualities.

In S. XXII, 56, there is the following short definition of these 5 groups:

What, o Bhikkhus, is the materiality-group? The 4 primary elements mahā-bhūta or dhātu and materiality depending thereon, this is called the materiality-group.

What, o Bhikkhus, is the feeling-group? There are 6 classes of feeling: due to visual contact, to sound contact, to odour contact, to taste contact, to bodily contact, and to mind contact.

What, o Bhikkhus, is the perception-group? There are 6 classes of perception: perception of visual objects, of sounds, of odours, of tastes, of bodily contacts, and of mental contacts.

What, o Bhikkhus, is the group of mental constructions? There are 6 classes of intentional states cetanā with regard to visual objects, to sounds, to odours, to tastes, to bodily contacts and to mind objects.

What, o Bhikkhus, is the consciousness-group? There are 6 classes of consciousness: visual-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, and mind-consciousness.

About the inseparability of the groups it is said:

''Whatever, o brother, there exists of feeling, of perception and of mental constructions, these things are associated, not dissociated, and it is impossible to separate one from the other and show their difference. For whatever one feels, one perceives; and whatever one perceives, of this one is conscious M. 43.

Further: Impossible is it for anyone to explain the passing out of one existence and the entering into a new existence, or the growth, increase and development of consciousness independent of materiality, feeling, perception and mental constructions S. XII, 53

For the inseparability and mutual conditionality of the 4 mental groups see: paccaya 6, 7.

Regarding the impersonality anattā and emptiness suññatā of the 5 groups, it is said in S. XXII, 49:

Whatever there is of materiality, feeling, perception, mental constructions and consciousness, whether past, present or future, one's own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, this one should understand according to reality and true understanding: 'This does not belong to me, this am I not, this is not my Ego.'

Further in S. XXII, 95: Suppose that a man who is not blind were to behold the many bubbles on the Ganges as they are driving along; and he should watch them and carefully examine them. After carefully examining them, however, they will appear to him empty, unreal and unsubstantial. In exactly the same way does the Bhikkhu behold all the material phenomena... feelings... perceptions... mental constructions... states of consciousness, whether they be of the past, present or future... far or near. And he watches them and examines them carefully; and after carefully examining them, they appear to him empty, unreal and unsubstantial.

The 5 groups are compared, respectively, to a lump of froth, a bubble, a mirage, a coreless plantain stem, and a conjuring trick S. XXII, 95.

See the Khandha Samyutta S. XXII; Vis.M XIV.


I. Materiality Group

khandha rūpa-khandha

A. Underived no-upādā 4 elements

the solid, or earth-element pathavī-dhātu
the liquid, or water-element āpo-dhātu
heat, or fire-element tejo-dhātu
motion, or wind-element vāyo-dhātu

B. Derived upādā 24 secondary phenomena

Physical sense-organs of: seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, body

Physical sense-objects: form, sound, odour, taste, bodily impacts

'Bodily impacts' photthabba are generally omitted in this list, because these physical objects of body-sensitivity are identical with the afore-mentioned solid element, heat and motion element. Hence their inclusion under 'derived materiality' would be a duplication.

femininity itthindriya
virility purisindriya
physical base of mind hadaya-vatthu
bodily expression kāya-viññatti s. viññatti
verbal expression vacī-viññatti
physical life rūpa jīvita s. jīvita
space element ākāsa-dhātu
physical agility rūpassa lahutā
physical elasticity rūpassa mudutā
physical adaptability rūpassa kammaññatā
physical growth rūpassa upacaya
physical continuity rūpassa santati s.
decay jarā
impermanence aniccatā
nutriment āhāra

II. Feeling Group


All feelings may, according to their nature, be classified as 5 kinds:

bodily pleasant feeling sukha = kāyikā sukhā vedanā
bodily painful feeling dukkha = kāyikā, dukkhā
mentally pleasant feeling somanassa = cetasikā sukhā vedanā
mentally painful feeling domanassa = cetasikā dukkhā vedanā
indifferent feeling upekkhā = adukkha-m-asukhā vedanā

III. Perception Group


All perceptions are divided into 6 classes: perception of form, sound, odour, taste, bodily contact, and mental contact.

IV. Group of Mental Constructions


This group comprises 50 mental phenomena, of which 11 are general psychological elements, 25 lofty qualities, 14 kammically disadvantageous qualities. Cf. Tab. 11.

V. Consciousness Group


The Suttas divide consciousness, according to the senses, into 6 classes: eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-consciousness.

The Abhidhamma and commentaries, however, distinguish, from the kammical or moral viewpoint, 89 classes of consciousness. Cf. viññāna and Tab. 1.

The moral quality of feeling, perception and consciousness is determined by the mental constructions.


Khandha-parinibbāna: see: nibbāna

Khandha-santāna: see:

Khanti: 'patience', forbearance', is one of the 10 perfections pāramī.

Khayānupassanā: 'contemplation of dissolution', is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight see: vipassanā

Khidda-padosikā devā: 'the celestial beings corruptible by pleasures', are a class of devas of the sense-sphere. They waste their time in merriment, play and enjoyment, and thereby become thoughtless, and in their thoughtlessness they fall from that world D. 1; 24.

Khīnāsava: 'the one in whom all fermentations are destroyed' is a name for the Arahat, or Noble One; s. āsava

Kicca: 'function'. Regarding the 14 functions of consciousness, see: viññāna-kicca

Kilesa: 'defilements', are mind-defiling, disadvantageous qualities. Vis.M XXII, 49, 65: There are 10 defilements, thus called because they are themselves defiled, and because they defile the mental properties associated with them. They are: 1 greed lobha 2 hate dosa 3 confusion moha 4 conceit māna 5 speculative views ditthi 6 skeptical doubt vicikicchā 7 mental Laziness thīna 8 restlessness uddhacca 9 shamelessness ahirika 10 lack of Fear of Wrongdoing or unconscientiousness anottappa For 1-3, see: mūla 4, s. māna 5, see: ditthi 6-8, s. nīvarana 9 and 10, see: ahirika-anottappa

The ten are explained in Dhs. 1229f and enumerated in Vibh. XII. No classification of the k. is found in the Suttas, though the term occurs quite often in them. For the related term, upakkilesa, 'impurities' different lists are given - App..

Kilesa-kāma: 'sensuality considered as defilement' see: kilesa might well be called 'subjective sensuality', in contradistinction to 'objective sensuality' vatthu-kāma i.e. the sense-objects kāma-guna Cf. kāma

Kilesa-parinibbāna: see: nibbāna 1.

Killing: see: kamma, kamma-patha,

Kiñcana: 'something', i.e. something evil that sticks or adheres to character. 'Evil appendant', is a name for the 3 disadvantageous roots mūla. There are 3 appendants: greed lobha is an appendant, hate dosa is an appendant, confusion moha is an appendant D. 33. 'Freed from appendants' akiñcana is a term for the perfectly Noble One Arahat

Kiriya: or Kriya-citta: 'functional consciousness' or 'kammically inoperative consciousness', is a name for such states of consciousness as are neither kammically advantageous kusala nor disadvantageous akusala nor kamma-results vipāka that is, they function independently of kamma. Thus are also called all those worldly mental states in the Arahat which are accompanied by 2 or 3 noble roots greedlessness, hatelessness, unconfusedness, being in the Arahat kammically neutral and corresponding to the kammically advantageous states of a non-Arahat see: Tab. 1-8 and 73-89, as well as the rootless mirth-producing hasituppāda mind-consciousness-element of the Arahat Tab. 72; further, that mind-element mano-dhātu which performs the function of directing āvajjana to the sense object Tab. 70, and that mind-consciousness-element manoviññāna-dhātu which performs the functions of deciding votthapana and directing to the mental object Tab. 71. The last-named 2 elements, of course, occur in all beings.

Together with kamma-resultant consciousness vipāka it belongs to the group of 'kammically neutral consciousness' avyākata See Tab. I last column. - App..

Knowledge: cf. paññā, ñāna, vijjā, vipassanā, abhiññā

Kolankola: 'passing from one noble family to another', is the name for one of the 3 kinds of sotāpanna.

Kriya-citta: = kiriya

Kukkucca: lit. 'wrongly-performed-ness' ku+krta+ya i.e. regrets, remorse, uneasiness of conscience, worry, is one of the kammically disadvantageous akusala mental abilities Tab. II. which, whenever it arises, is associated with hateful discontented consciousness Tab. I and III, 30, 31. It is the 'repentance over wrong things done, and right things neglected' Com. to A. I. Restlessness and regrets uddhacca-kukkucca combined, are counted as one of the 5 mental hindrances nīvarana.

Kuppa-dhamma: 'liable to perturbation', is one who has not yet attained full mastery over the absorptions. In Pug. 3 it is said: What person is liable to perturbation? Such a person gains the attainments of the fine-material and immaterial sphere see: avacara But he does not gain them at his wish, nor without toil and exertion; and not at his wish as regards place, object and duration, does he enter them or arise from them. Thus it is well possible that in case of such a person, through negligence, the attainments will become perturbed. This person is liable to perturbation.

Kusala: 'kammically advantageous' or 'profitable', salutary, morally good, skillful Connotations of the term, according to Com. Atthasālini, are: of good health, blameless, productive of favourable kamma-result, skillful. It should be noted that Com. excludes the meaning 'skillful', when the term is applied to states of consciousness.

It is defined in M. 9 as the 10 advantageous courses of action see: kamma-patha In psychological terms, 'kammically advantageous' are all those kammical intentions kamma-cetanā and the consciousness and mental properties associated therewith, which are accompanied by 2 or 3 advantageous roots see: mūla i.e. by greedlessness alobha and hatelessness adosa and in some cases also by non-confusion amoha understanding, understanding. Such states of consciousness are regarded as 'kammically advantageous' as they are causes of favourable kamma results and contain the seeds of a happy destiny or rebirth. From this explanation, two facts should be noted: 1 it is intention that makes a state of consciousness, or an act, 'good' or 'bad'; 2 the moral criterion in Buddhism is the presence or absence of the 3 advantageous or moral roots see: mūla

The above explanations refer to mundane lokiya advantageous consciousness. supra-mundane advantageous lokuttara-kusala states, i.e. the four paths of sanctity see: ariya-puggala have as results only the corresponding four fruitions; they do not constitute kamma, nor do they lead to rebirth, and this applies also to the good actions of an Arahat Tab. I, 73-80 and his meditative states Tab. 1, 81-89, which are all kammically inoperative functional; s. kiriya

kusala belongs to a threefold division of all consciousness, as found in the Abhidhamma Dhs., into advantageous kusala disadvantageous akusala and kammically neutral avyākata which is the first of the triads tika in the Abhidhamma schedule mātikā see: Guide, pp. 4ff., 12ff; Vis.M XIV, 83ff.

kusala-kamma-patha: 'advantageous course of action'; s. kamma-patha

Kusala-mūla: the 'advantageous roots' or 'roots of advantageous action', are greedlessness alobha hatelessness adosa and non-confusion amoha s. mūla They are identical with kusala-hetu s. paccaya 1.

Kusala-vipāka: the mental 'kamma-result of advantageous kamma' see: kamma.

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