'overcoming', abandoning. There are 5 kinds of
overcoming: (1) overcoming by repression (vikkhambhana-pahāna), i.e. the
temporary suspension of the 5 hindrances (nīvarana, q.v.) during the
absorptions, (2) overcoming by the opposite (tadanga-pahāna), (3)
overcoming by destruction (samuccheda-pahāna), (4) overcoming by
tranquillization (patipassaddhi-pahāna), (5) overcoming by escape (nissarana-pahāna).
(1) "Among these, 'overcoming by repression' is the
pushing back of adverse things, such as the 5 mental hindrances (nīvarana
q.v), etc., through this or that mental concentration (samādhi, q.v.),
just as a pot thrown into moss-clad water pushes the moss aside....
(2) " 'Overcoming by the opposite' is the overcoming by
opposing this or that thing that is to be overcome, by this or that factor of
knowledge belonging to insight (vipassanā q.v.), just as a lighted lamp
dispels the darkness of the night. In this way, the personality-belief (sakkāyaditthi,
s. ditthi) is overcome by determining the mental and corporeal phenomena
... the view of uncausedness of existence by investigation into the
conditions... the idea of eternity by contemplation of impermanency ... the idea
of happiness by experience of Danger....
(3) "If through the knowledge of the noble path (s. ariyapuggala)
the fetters and other evil things cannot continue any longer, just like a tree
destroyed by lightning, then such an overcoming is called 'overcoming by
destruction' " (Vis.M. XXII, 110f.).
(4) When, after the disappearing of the fetters at the
entrance into the paths, the fetters, from the moment of fruition (phala)
onwards, are forever extinct and stilled, such overcoming is called the
'overcoming by tranquillization'.
(5) "The 'overcoming by escape' is identical with the
extinction and Nibbāna" (Pts.M. I. 27). (App.).