'clinging', according to Vis.M. XVII, is an intensified degree of craving
The 4 kinds of clinging are:
- sensuous clinging (kāmupādāna),
- clinging to views (ditthupādāna),
- clinging to mere rules and ritual (sīlabbatupādāna),
- clinging to the personality-belief (atta-vādupādāna).
(1) "What now is the sensuous clinging? Whatever with regard to sensuous
objects there exists of sensuous lust, sensuous desire, sensuous attachment,
sensuous passion, sensuous deluded ness, sensuous fetters: this is called
(2) ''What is the clinging to views? 'Alms and offerings are useless; there
is no fruit and result for good and bad deeds: all such view and wrong
conceptions are called the clinging to views.
(3) "What is the clinging to mere rules and ritual? The holding firmly to the
view that through mere rules and ritual one may reach purification: this is
called the clinging to mere rules and ritual.
(4) "What is the clinging to the personality-belief? The 20 kinds of
ego-views with regard to the groups of existence (s.
sakkāya-ditthi): these are called
the clinging to the personality-belief" (Dhs.1214-17).
This traditional fourfold division of clinging is not quite satisfactory.
Besides kamupādāna we should expect either rūpupādāna and
arūpupādāna, or simply bhavupādāna. Though the Anāgāmī is entirely
free from the traditional 4 kinds of upādāna, he is not freed from
rebirth, as he still possesses bhavupādāna. The Com. to Vis.M. XVII, in
trying to get out of this dilemma, explains kāmupādāna as including here
all the remaining kinds of clinging.
"Clinging' is the common rendering for u., though 'clinging' would
come closer to the literal meaning of it, which is 'uptake'; s. Three Cardinal
Discourses (WHEEL 17), p.19.